REFERENCE & KNOWLEDGE BASE ON GENDER & WOMEN ISSUES

DOWNLOADABLE RESOURCES

  1. Agriculture & Rural Development 
  2. [.pdf]   GD109- Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook (791 pages) The Sourcebook is the outcome of joint planning, continued interest in gender and agriculture, and concerted efforts by theWorld Bank, FAO, and IFAD. The purpose of the Sourcebook is to act as a guide for practitioners and  technical staff in addressing gender issues and integrating gender-responsive actions in the design and implementation of agricultural projects and programs. It speaks not with gender specialists on how to improve their skills but  rather reaches out to technical experts to guide them in thinking through how to integrate gender dimensions into their operations. The Sourcebook aims to deliver practical advice, guidelines,  principles, and descriptions and  illustrations of approaches that have worked so far to achieve the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agricultural operations of development agencies. It captures and expands the  main messages of theWorld  Development  Report 2008: Agriculture for Development and is considered an important tool to facilitate the operationalization and implementation of the report’s key principles on gender equality and women’s empowerment. The Sourcebook focuses on agricultural livelihoods, with agriculture defined broadly as “agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock, land and water, agro-industries, and environment,” following the FAO definition.
  3. [.pdf]  GD102- A tool for gender-sensitive agriculture The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.
    [.pdf]  GD104- Integrating gender issues in food security and rural development
  4. The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.
  5. [.pdf]  GD105- Policy Highlights – Gender in Agricultural Development Policies
  6. Gender refers to the social roles and relations between women and men. This includes the different responsibilities of both in a given culture or location. Unlike the sex of men or women, which is biologically determined, gender  roles are socially constructed, and can change over time and vary according to geographic location. Social justice and fairness are arguments often advanced in support of gender considerations in development. In fact documented  evidence around the world (Box 1) shows that gender equity is positively linked to increased efficiency and better prospects for economic growth. It is now clear that biases  against women hinder agricultural development and  reduce  the nutritional status of rural households. Women play a central role in agricultural production and marketing, hence in maintaining food security at household, community and national levels. The rationale for emphasising  gender in agricultural policies and strategies is as much one of economic efficiency as social equity.
  7. [.pdf]  GD106- The role of gender in agricultural development
  8. What factors contributed to adoption of a gender perspective
    among those centers that have done so successfully? Why have the other IARCs found it difficult to deal with gender issues? What next steps should be taken by the CGIAR system to ensure system-wide attention to gender? Guided by these questions this paper addresses five areas. It begins with an overview of the rationale for including gender issues in agricultural research and development, then summarizes the existing gender issues  recommendations made to the CGIAR system. A synthesis of the discussion and recommendations made on differential user groups and gender issues at the 1987 ICW is included. The next section highlights innovative  strategies   and approaches taken by some centers to deal with certain gender issues. This is followed by an analysis of the reasons for the difficulties within the IARC community of incorporating gender-sensitive research and  development. Based on this analysis, and drawing upon the successful experiences from within the CGIAR system, the final section outlines next steps and alternative strategies to assist the CGIAR system in achieving a better  gender balance in the methods and operation of its research program.
  9. [.pdf]  GD107- Gender Knowledge Note – Agriculture
  10. The NZ Aid Programme’s Gender Equality Knowledge Notes aim to increase knowledge and understanding of gender equality and women’s empowerment. This Knowledge Note encourages a structural analysis of gender issues, reflected in the headings in the table on page 4: Women’s economic empowerment (economic), women’s participation in decision-making (political), risks and security, and basic needs and strategic interests.
  11. [.pdf]  GD108- Transforming agricultural development and production in Africa
  12. Results of a joint programme of the Salzburg Global Seminar and the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development 13-17 November 2011. Participants were a diverse mix, including representatives of rural women’s  groups and farmers’ organizations, private-sector leaders and investors, government officials, and donor and multilateral institutions. They met to examine the landscape of current activity, to explore shared goals and to develop  innovative ways to collaborate and take common action. This Salzburg meeting was timely, given that recent reports by IFAD, the World Bank and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) clearly show that empowering rural women increases agricultural production and food security in Africa. With these findings in mind, the participants focused on identifying successful interventions that could be further developed and devising mechanisms that could be used to close persistent gender gaps in policy and practice, such as differential access to financial tools, productive resources, and leadership and decision-making.
  13. [.pdf]  GD110- ToolKit-for-Gender-and-Agriculture
  14. Despite increased awareness, well-documented research findings and the availability of more information on women’s roles in agriculture at the country level, gender is not yet mainstreamed in the agriculture-related work of the  World Bank and its borrower countries. In fact, women’s pivotal role is still not sufficiently reflected in the design of agricultural programs and projects. One reason is that practitioners often lack the tools and know-how for integrating gender perspectives in their work. The present toolkit on gender issues in the agriculture sector is designed to partly fulfill this need. The toolkit is part of a series of toolkits being designed as tools for assisting task managers in improving project performance by incorporating gender into their work. It comprises ready-to-use material designed expressly for World Bank task managers working in the agriculture and natural resources management sector. It presents a range of tools for gender analysis and practical “how-to” strategies, collected from program and project experience from around the world.
  15. [.pdf]  GD111- Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains
  16. “Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook” is based on research studies and training programs conducted under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) Project. Over the life of  the project, GATE worked with seven USAID Missions (Albania, Bangladesh, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, and South Africa) to better integrate gender considerations into economic growth and trade-related programs  to expand areas of opportunity and mitigate the adverse effects of economic and trade expansion for poor women and men. Building on the growing body of empirical evidence that addressing gender issues in value chains can improve program outcomes, this Handbook presents a practical process for practitioners on how gender issues can inform the  design, implementation, and monitoring of USAID value chain programs. Influenced by some of the leading USAID value chain development approaches, the Handbook provides a methodology for analyzing how gender issues  constrain or support the ability of these programs to achieve their goals.
  17. [.pdf]  GD112- Gender Aware Approaches in Agricultural Programme – A Study of Sida-supported Agricultural Programmes
  18. The overall objective of this thematic evaluation is to ‘increase understanding of how development assistance in agriculture should be designed, implemented and funded to ensure that female farmers are reached, that their needs as  producers are met, and that they are able to benefit from the support to achieve a positive impact on their livelihoods
  19. [.pdf]  GD113- Gender and agricultural innovation – Revisiting the debate through an innovation system perspective
  20. This paper is an attempt to bring together two major streams of debate and policy analysis, which could make a major contribution to equitable development. The first concerns gender issues and how they relate to achieving both equity and efficiency goals. The second concerns innovation in agriculture and the way planning and policy is starting to view this as a multidimensional process driven by capacities distributed through society. This paper is being written in the context of a programme — the DFID-funded Research Into Use programme — that is exploring how research can be used for innovation and impact. The purpose of the paper is to reflect on the opportunities that  a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues and to provide some insight on what RIU might expect to achieve in this regard. The paper concludes with a call for two major shifts in practice and  analysis: (1) A shift from gender analysis to gender learning and (2) A shift from women’s empowerment to empowering innovation system capacity.
  21. [.pdf]  GD114- Gender and Institutional Dimensions of Agricultural Technology Adoption
  22. This paper reviews and integrates findings from existing empirical studies and case studies received from 35 organizations in various countries to identify demand- and supply-side constraints and opportunities in access, adoption  and impact of technological innovations. This review consistently finds that women have much slower observed rates of adoption of a wide range of technologies than men; and these are mainly due to differentiated access to  complementary inputs and services. There are limited studies that looked at upstream stages including priority-setting and innovation processes, in which women continue to be underrepresented.
    [.pdf]  GD065- Gender Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture – World Bank
  23. This toolkit has been developed to assist project task teams, borrowers, and partners to recognize and address gender concerns in designing rural development projects and to monitor and evaluate results, outcomes, and  impact on achieving overall rural well-being. To further this, the Agriculture Action Plan 2013–2015 (World Bank, 2012b) aims to include genderrelated analysis in 100% of its projects and gender-related actions and  M&E in 75% of its projects (Note C).
  24. [.pdf]  GD097- Gender, Assets and Agricultural Development Programs
  25. Being able to access, control, and own productive assets such as land, labor, finance, and social capital enables people to create stable and productive lives. Yet relatively little is known about how agricultural development programs can most effectively deliver these outcomes of well-being, empowerment, and higher income in a way that acknowledges differential access to and control over assets by men and women. After reviewing the literature on gender and assets, this paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding the gendered pathways through which asset accumulation occurs, including attention to not only men’s and women’s assets but also those they share in joint control and ownership.
  26. [.pdf]   GD115- Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD
  27. The Young Professionals’ Platform in Agricultural Research for Development (YPARD ) wishes to contribute to the debate on change in formal higher agricultural education with the views of young professionals and has hired two  consultants to carry out a study entitled “Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD”. The views of young professionals have not previously been included in discussions on curricula development. This is the  niche of this study. The study activities includes a brief literature review; a questionnaire targeting primarily young professionals to get their views; an analysis of results and comparison with information available in the literature; a  gathering of comments directly from young professionals in the form of short stories and finally preparing this report including a Key Message Brief aiming at emphasising key elements emerging from this study and upon which  YPARD could build in follow up actions.
  28. [.pdf]   GD078- Gender and Rural Development – GIZ
  29. Gender equality is clearly recognized as a human right on an international level. Over the past several years, UN member states have entered into a number of commitments. The Rome Declaration on Food Security,  resulting from  the FAO World Food Summit in 1996, affirms the obligation to promote the equal rights and duties of men and women regarding food security. The Millennium Development Goals underline the fact that,  without gender equality, it will be impossible to reduce by half the number of people who suffer from hunger by 2015. With its Development Policy Action Plan on Gender 2009 – 2012, the German Federal Ministry for  Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has committed to the economic empowerment of women and, in particular, to highlighting the need for genderspecific answers to the negative impact of  climate change  on agriculture.
  30. Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship
  31. Authors: Bob Rijkers; Rita Costa
  32. Published: May 2012
  33. Pages: 68
  34. Time Allocation in Rural Households: The Indirect Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs
  35. Author: Amer Hasan
  36. Published: March 2010
  37. Pages: 47
  38. Gender and Governance in Rural Services
  39. Author: World Bank
  40. Published: January 2010
  41. Pages: 332
  42. Left Behind To Farm ? Women’s Labor Re-Allocation In Rural China
  43. Authors: Ren Mu; Dominique van de Walle
  44. Published: October 2009
  45. Pages: 51
  46. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook
  47. Authors: World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
  48. Published: October 2008
  49. Pages: 765
  50. Aid Effectiveness
  51. [.pdf]   GD038- DAC Guiding principles for aid effectiveness, gender equality and women’s empowerment – OECD
  52. These Guiding Principles focus primarily on the opportunities for using the implementation of the Paris Declaration’s principles and commitments to: Harmonise approaches to support for gender equality;  Implement  concrete actions, focussed on results and impacts;  Be responsible and accountable for those actions and for agreed commitments on gender equality and women’s empowerment.
  53. [.pdf]   GD073- Capacity Development for Promoting Gender Equality in the Aid Effectiveness Agenda – UNIFEM
  54. Lessons from Sub-regional Consultations in Africa This Discussion Paper outlines a capacity development strategy for advancing development effectiveness and gender equality in the new aid agenda.
  55. [.pdf]   GD116- Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment – Donor Charts – March 2013
  56. Charts (2010-2011) summarising statistics on aid focused on gender equality and women’s empowerment extended by each DAC member. Information shown includes the gender equality policy marker coverage, the top  ten recipients and a sector breakdown of aid focused on gender equality and women’s empowerment.
  57. [.pdf]   GD117- Findings from the Gender Equality Module of the 2011 Paris Declaration Monitoring Survey
  58. This report is based on replies by the 24 countries that chose to test the gender equality module of the 2011 Paris Declaration Monitoring Survey: Albania, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Comoros,  Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Gabon, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Peru, Rwanda, Togo and Zambia.
  59. [.pdf]   GD118- Supporting the Monitoring of Aid Effectiveness from a Gender Perspective
  60. Report of a UN Women’s multi-country study in Cambodia, Vietnam, Guatemala, Peru, Morocco and Mozambique, to document how far these countries have progressed in terms of the inclusion of a gender perspective  in their aid effectiveness processes, and to what extent CSOs participate and are able to oversee the implementation and results. The study, Supporting the Monitoring of Aid Effectiveness from a Gender Perspective, was  conducted in Cambodia by ActionAid Cambodia from September 2011 to March 2012.
  61. [.pdf]   GD119- Ten-Country Overview Report Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda
  62. This research report has been generated as part of a UNIFEM programme, “Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The programme is funded by the European Commission (EC) and  consists of research and programmatic technical assistance. The three-year programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on  gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS). In the first stage of the programme, research was carried out in ten developing countries (Mozambique, Morocco, India, Uganda, Tanzania,   Rwanda, Nepal, Cameroon, Peru and Ethiopia) in July 2008. The research aimed to investigate how GRB tools and strategies have been used in the context of currently used aid modalities-specifically general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS). The studies were conducted in the third quarter of 2008.
  63. [.pdf]   GD120- Pacific Gender and Aid Effectiveness Case Study Report
  64. This report presents the findings from four case studies of development assistance in the Pacific region, which illustrate how a focus on gender equality has fared in the context of the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid  Effectiveness. Additionally, the authors have drawn upon contemporary literature and their collective Pacific-based aid and development experiences to inform these findings and to make recommendations about how aid  and gender effectiveness can be enhanced. The strengthening of existing development policies and practices as well as the introduction of new gendered practices by the commissioning agencies – NZAID and AusAID –  can facilitate the vital outcome of aid and gender effectiveness for citizens. The four case studies were located in Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and across the Pacific region. These case studies  traversed a range of modalities and sectors, including HIV/AIDS; community development; roads; and policing. Each case study was operating at either the micro, meso or macro levels, and all had different approaches to gender.
  65. [.pdf]   GD121- Aid Effectiveness and Women’s Rights Series – An Overview of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness & the New Aid Modalities
  66. The purpose for creating this set of Primers, Understanding the Aid Effectiveness Agenda is to share critical information and analysis with women’s rights advocates about the new aid architecture that has emerged as a  result of the Paris Declaration (PD)—the most recent donor-recipient countries agreement designed to increase the impact of aid. The Aid effectiveness agenda born out of the PD currently determines how and to whom  aid is being delivered as well as how donor and recipient countries relate to one another. Aid distribution is clearly not simply a mechanistic process, but rather a political one. We hope that the facts and issues discussed  within these primers will encourage women’s rights advocates and CSOs to join in the process of calling for a more comprehensive, balanced, and inclusive approach to reforming aid so that it reaches the people who  need  it most, including women!
  67. [.pdf]   GD122- Mapping Aid Effectiveness and Gender Equality in Africa – Regional Issues and Trends
  68. This report provides an overview of the issues and trends that emerged from mapping studies on aid effectiveness, gender equality and women’s empowerment in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC),  Ethiopia and Ghana. The studies were carried out within the context of the EC/UN Partnership on Gender Equality for Development and Peace, a programme jointly supported and implemented by the European  Commission (EC), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITC/ILO).
  69. [.pdf]   GD123- Gender equality and aid effectiveness – Challenges and opportunities for international practice – Experiences from South East Asia
  70. A steering group from regional offices of DFID, UNIFEM and the World Bank decided to deepen mutual understanding amongst development practitioners of the challenges and opportunities for implementation of gender  equality objectives through the Paris Declaration in SE Asia. The workshop was held in Bangkok on 2‐3 April 2007. The purpose of this report is to summarise the issues and views emerging from the case studies and the  workshop.
  71. [.pdf]   GD124- Gender Campus – The Global Development Agenda – Tools for Gender-Sensitive Planning and Implementation – Training Strategy and Trainer’s Guide
  72. This document proposes guidance for trainers as a part of the capacity building component of the EC/UN Partnership on Gender Equality for Development and Peace. The Partnership is a global initiative that involves the  European Commission (EC), the United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITCILO), and aims to identify approaches with which to  integrate gender equality and women’s human rights into new aid modalities, in accordance with the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This document describes the features of the modular training course “The global development agenda: tools for gender-sensitive planning and implementation”, which was designed to be delivered both online and face-to-face. Each of the nine training modules can be adapted to different contexts,  studied independently, or combined with others. The modular structure will allow facilitators to select contents from the training menu, to design a training programme adapted to the audience, to implement either sensitization or practical training sessions.
  73. [.pdf]   …GD124a- Gender Campus – Tools
  74. Tool T1: Promoting gender equality through stakeholder participation; Tool T2: Increasing gender influence in policy making; Tool T3.1: Gender scan of poverty reduction strategy/Swap;
    Tool T3.2: Checklist for gender scanning Prs or Swaps; Tool T4: Checklist for Ex Ante screening of gender sensitivity of poverty reduction strategies, sector programmes and macro-economic policies; Tool T5: Key notions for analysing and monitoring budgets from a gender perspective; Tool T6: Working in partnership to keep gender on the policy agenda;
    Tool T7: Grid for the mid-term review of the CSPs.
  75. [.pdf]   …GD124b- Gender Campus – Gender and Aid Effectiveness Glossary
  76. Gender and Aid Effectiveness Glossary
  77. …GD124c- Gender Campus Module 0 – Must Know on Gender and Development
  78. This Module equips you with the basic tools to adopt a “gender approach to development”. Unit A “Why?” illustrates the rationale for the promotion of gender equality in development, and gives an overview of the  international legal and policy frameworks supporting gender equality and women’s empowerment. Unit B “What?” familiarises you with the basic concepts and terminology related to the “gender discourse”. Unit C“How”  gives a brief overview of the methodological approaches to gender equality and illustrates practical tools for gender mainstreaming in development processes.
  79. [.pdf]   …GD124d- Gender Campus Module 0bis – Introduction to Gender sensitive indicators
  80. This module provides some essential tools for mainstreaming gender equality in development cooperation.Unit A offers an overview of gender analysis as a systematic attempt to identify key issues contributing to gender  inequalities so that they can be properly addressed. Gender analysis provides the basis for gender mainstreaming, and is also needed to determine whether specific measures are needed for women or men in addition to  mainstreaming activities. Gender analysis should be conducted at all levels, from the grassroots (the micro level) through intermediate levels (meso level) such as service delivery systems, to the highest political levels (macro  level), and across all sectors and programmes of development cooperation. Unit B introduces participants to the basic concepts relating to gender-sensitive indicators, which are needed to measure progress towards  targets  which themselves need to be gender-sensitive. A prerequisite for conducting sound gender analysis, as well as for the establishment of gender-sensitive indicators, is the availability of statistical data disaggregated by  sex  and other more qualitative types of information reflecting differences between women and men.
  81. [.pdf]   …GD124e- Gender Campus Module 1 – Aid Effectiveness, the “New” Aid Architecture and Gender Equality
  82. This module examines how the “new” aid architecture and the aid effectiveness agenda can positively contribute to gender equality and women’s empowerment, and includes an analysis of the gender dimension of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005).
  83. [.pdf]   …GD124f- Gender Campus Module 2 – Aid Effectiveness for Development Results – Which Indicators for Gender Equality
  84. The module presents a set of gender-sensitive indicators for monitoring implementation of the Paris Declaration, an instrument which focuses on making aid delivery more effective, accountable, transparent and in line with  national poverty reductions plans. The indicators were endorsed by the Accra International Women’s Forum as a contribution to the High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (August 2008). These indicators can assist
    governments and civil society in monitoring the “gender-sensitivity” of aid processes, and their effective contribution to the achievement of international and national gender equality objectives.
  85. [.pdf]   …GD124g- Gender Campus Module 3 – Financing Gender Equality Priorities
  86. The first part of the module introduces the rationale for and benefits of increased national and international partnership in order to promote financing of gender equality and women’s empowerment. The module then presents some examples of tools that can be used, first, to estimate the costs of attaining gender equality goals; and second, to plan and monitor expenditures relating to the advancement of gender-sensitive development  objectives. This will include (i) a framework for costing MDGs and in particular MDG3, the OECD Gender Marker, so as to facilitate appraisal of the extent to which development aid contributes to gender equality; and  (ii) an overview of approaches to and tools for Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB).
  87. [.pdf]   …GD124h- Gender Campus Module 4 – Mainstreaming Gender in Development Planning
  88. This Module addresses development planning frameworks from the perspective of gender equality and proposes entry points, strategies and tools to ensure that these processes contribute to advancing the gender equality  agenda. It also looks at the linkages between country-led national development planning and the management of aid flows. The first part of the module considers national planning frameworks and in particular Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs), which provide a country-owned framework to guide policy dialogue, effective programming and disbursement of cooperation aid. The second part of the module introduces Programme-Based Approaches which allow donors to engage in development cooperation based on the principle of coordinated support for a locally-owned programme of development. Specific focus will be given to Sector Wide  Approaches (SWAps) which are widely gaining momentum within the framework of donor programming in support of priority sectors as designated in the country’s PRSP.
    .pdf]   …GD124i- Gender Campus Module 5 – Mainstreaming Gender in Aid Programming and Delivery Mechanisms
  89. This Module addresses the gender implications of those planning frameworks and aid delivery mechanisms used by donors to support national development plans and poverty reduction strategies.
  90. [.pdf]   …GD124j- Gender Campus Module 6 – Gender, development aid and decent work
  91. Coherence between social and economic policies is a crucial element in ensuring that development frameworks are equitable and sustainable. Productive and freely-chosen employment is closely interlinked with  development, both as an objective to be pursued in its own right and as a means of reducing poverty. For this reason full and productive employment and decent work for all has recently been included as a target to help   pave the way towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1), the eradication of poverty. The ILO concept of Decent Work targets both the quantity and the quality of employment, and offers an integrated  framework for action in which gender equality plays a crucial role: the differential roles, positions and contributions of women and men in the world of work still pose numerous challenges that need to be addressed at all levels and in all sectors of development planning. This module addresses the inter-linkages between gender equality, decent and productive employment, and aid effectiveness. It offers some examples of how the  promotion  of “Decent Work” in development planning offers opportunities and entry points for enhancing development effectiveness and advancing gender equality in the context of the new aid architecture.
  92. [.pdf]   …GD124k- Gender Campus Module 7 – Aid Effectiveness and the Implementation of Security Council Resolutions 1325 & 1820
  93. This module explores the gender dimension of the aid effectiveness agenda in regard to the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security and Security Council resolution 1820  (2008) which recognises sexual violence in conflict as a tactic of war. The first part of the module provides a broad overview of the aid effectiveness agenda and in particular the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and  the Accra Agenda for Action and their implications for gender equality. In the second part, the module discusses in detail the key elements and principles of the UN SCRs 1325 and 1820. The connections between and  relevance of the Paris Declaration principles and SCRs 1325 and 1820 are explored in the third part – with a particular focus on identifying key challenges and also entry points for strengthening the linkages and thereby  accelerate the implementation of SCRs 1325 and 1820 within the framework of the aid effectiveness agenda. Case study examples to illustrate ongoing efforts in implementing SCR 1325 are provided wherever relevant. A  specific example of the European Commission’s best practices and instruments that can be used to secure funding in support of women, peace and security is provided in Annex 1.
  94. [.pdf]   GD125- Development Cooperation Beyond the Aid Effectiveness Paradigm – A women’s rights perspective
  95. The failures of the current predominant patriarchal and neoliberal model of growth and development are more apparent than ever and have never been so widely acknowledged: even the establishment is showing interest in the need for a new development model and a new multilateralism.3 Yet, there is no easy answer on how to build a more inclusive and democratic international system. A new system that delivers for those who have been historically marginalised, many of whom—due to socially constructed roles and gender norms—are women. In order to explore alternatives or to bring existing proposals to decision-making tables and build a new governance system, it is essential to think holistically from the start. This involves understanding the different interlinked channels through which the crisis is transmitted and the processes, politics, and power imbalances in which they are embedded.
  96. [.pdf]   GD126- Development effectiveness – Towards new understandings
  97. This Issues Brief aims to make a contribution to thinking on development effectiveness by suggesting four categories under which it can be understood, based on how different aid actors describe and use the term1. The  four categories consider development effectiveness as: 1) organizational effectiveness; 2) coherence or coordination; 3) development outcomes from aid; and 4) overall development outcomes. This research is not  exhaustive, but rather represents a starting point for further discussion, and is part of a broader NSI research agenda on development effectiveness. Future studies will benefit by including more aid actors and sources, and  in particular by consulting with Southern stakeholders.
  98. [.pdf]   GD129- Brief-on-development-effectivness-from-gender-perspective-2
  99. This brief looks into gender equality as an essential development goal and how the current models governing development assistance undermine the protection and fulfillment of women’s rights. It also draws some recommendations on how development aid can genuinely transform women’s disadvantage and support the empowerment of both women and men to make significant changes in the developing world.
  100. [.pdf]   GD130- MDG3 – Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
  101. In 2000, 189 UN member states adopted the Millennium Declaration, which distils the key goals and targets agreed at the international conferences and world summits during the 1990s. Drawing on the Declaration, the    UN system drew up eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to provide a set of benchmarks to measure progress towards the eradication of global poverty.  MDG 3 interprets gender equality very narrowly, and  there is growing recognition that the targets and indicators that frame the goal on gender equality and women’s empowerment are too limited. Nevertheless, half the MDGs now have targets directly related to gender equality and women’s empowerment: MDG 1on decent work for women; MDGs 2 and 3 on girls’ education; and MDG 5 on maternal mortality and sexual and reproductive health. A review of progress related to   MDG 3, as well as the targets related to women’s sexual and reproductive health, shows that progress towards gender equality has been uneven over the past 10 years. With only five years to go until the deadline for  reaching the MDGs, we are now at a critical juncture to reflect on where and how countries have managed to achieve progress, and what lessons can be drawn to accelerate progress in countries where it has been too  slow.
  102. Communication
  103. [.pdf]   GD017-Communicating Gender For Rural Development – Integrating – FAO
  104. This document is designed to promote the introduction of a gender perspective into communication for development initiatives in rural areas, and suggests practical ways of going about this. It consists of two parts. The first focuses on key concepts and guidelines relating to gender on the one hand and communication for development on the other, as well as on the synergy between gender and communication for development. The second part focuses on the various stages of a communication initiative, “revisiting” them from a gender perspective.
  105. [.pdf]   GD132- The Gender Guide for Health Communication Programs
  106. The purpose of the Gender Guide is to encourage the incorporation of gender-based roles and responsibilities in the design, implementation, and evaluation of health  communication programs. The guide does not directly address broad-based issues of gender equity. It does, however, provide questions to help program  managers determine how gender roles, for both women and men, may impede access to health information, restrict use of health services, or limit beneficial health  outcomes. By identifying this information, health communication programs can encourage individuals and communities to pay attention to resolving gender  inequities. Program planners should be aware that health behaviors, practices, or actions promoted by health communication programs may precipitate direct or  indirect changes in gender roles. If program planners anticipate changes in gender attitudes or roles, they should define those changes clearly and include them in  outcome indicators to measure changes.
  107. [.pdf]   GD134- Gender and Communication
  108. Communication is necessary in all aspects of human endeavour. This module looks at the difference in the way women and men communicate. It looks at social  settings and attempts to provide an understanding of behaviours that will ultimately help people feel comfortable and be effective in mixed gender environments.
  109. [.pdf]   GD135- Media and Global Change – Out of focus – gender visibilities in development
  110. In the spirit of “mapping the field” the author explores, in this chapter, tensions in the field across approaches recognizing women, gender, and feminist concerns. The very visibilities of development issues shift in focus and frame, across historical moment as well as institutional context.In order to provide an overview of the  field, the author focuses on the shifting  visibilities of women and gender within development, the material structures within which these visibilities are articulated,  and considers how feminist critiques might contribute to this dialogue
  111. [.pdf]   GD137- Gender_and_communication_guide
  112. Learn the history of how researchers have studied gender and communication, including the deficit, dominance, difference, and dynamic approaches.
    • Find out what it means to “do gender.”
    • Explore the range of masculine and feminine speech styles.
    • Learn about tag questions, up-talk, one-ups, and competitive banter.
    • Discover speech acts and what they mean for communication.
    • Learn the most effective means of communication for managers and other authority figures.
  113. [.pdf]   GD138- Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men – Opinion on “Breaking gender stereotypes in the media”
  114. The Advisory Committee on Women and Men decided at its meeting on 19 November 2009 to set up a working group to prepare an opinion on women and the  media. At a meeting of the working group on 20 May 2010, the title was changed to “Breaking gender stereotypes in the media” The purpose of this opinion is to  propose measures for the promotion of a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women and men in the media and in new technologies of communication.  Together with this objective goes the purpose to promote equal opportunities and working conditions for women and men working in all areas of the media sector, as  well as to increase participation and access to expression and decisionmaking for women in and throughout the media. Freedom of expression and information  is also a fundamental right of our democracies. The right balance therefore needs to be found between the fundamental right to equality of women and men, the  breaking of gender stereotypes in the media and the fundamental right to freedom of information, freedom of expression in the media, diversity of opinion and media  pluralism.
    [.pdf]   GD139- Enhancing Gender Equality in the Media in Eastern Africa
  115. This regional report presents the results of a survey that was conducted by the Eastern Africa Journalists Association (EAJA) in collaboration with the International  Federation of Journalists (IFJ) Africa Office. The gender officers were responsible for conducting the research, processing the information and writing the country  reports were selected in collaboration with member unions and associations of EAJA. The survey in Eastern Africa in 2008 has revealed through the findings that  much remains to be done to achieve gender equality in journalism in the region. Eastern Africa is a war torn zone; however in the same region you have the  booming media businesses on the continent. The main challenge for journalists and other media workers in the region is to secure their safety and improve their  working conditions. In this struggle for safety, better social life and improved job careers, the concern and programmes for gender equity are usually not the  priorities for the journalists’ trade unions and the employers in the collective negotiations and career promotion.
  116. [.pdf]   GD140- Mission Possible – A Gender and Media Advocacy Toolkit – Module 5 – How to gather evidence to support advocacy
  117. This module identifies different ways that activists can undertake research on the media to gather facts with which they can engage the media when conducting  advocacy. Approaches to gathering evidence include media monitoring, audience research and conducting a gender audit of the media.
  118. [.pdf]   GD141- The Gender and Media Handbook – Promoting Equality, Diversity & Empowerment
  119. This handbook’s aim is to help journalists and media professionals in Cyprus and internationally to be sensitive to gender issues such as negative portrayals of  women in the media, the lack of women in leadership positions in media organisations, etc., and to provide practical help for people who want to see things change . It is designed to be used, to be thumbed through, kept on the desk next to the computer, or to service formal training seminars. Modeled on similar handbooks  produced in countries as diverse as Kenya, Singapore, Norway, and elsewhere, it arrives as a punctuation mark at the end of a long project carried out by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies in Nicosia, Cyprus. As such, it represents the work and contributions of a wide range of media professionals; it stands as  a testament to their interest, their commitment, and to the principle they share that things have to change, and that it is women and men in the media who will
    make this change happen.
  120. [.pdf]   GD142- Gender, Race and Media Representation
  121. This chapter explores some of the ways mediated communication in the United States represents the social constructions of race and gender and ultimately  contributes to our understanding of both, especially race.
  122. [.pdf]   GD143- Gender Sensitive Reporting Manual
  123. This Gender Sensitive training package is divided into two component parts: The Manual and Reading Materials The two are parts of the whole and are mutually  supportive. Although the manual can stand alone, the trainer needs the ‘reading materials’ to enable her/him to implement a knowledge-based in-depth course. The   reading materials are organised in such a way as to fit into the intended 8-day training programme. The package is for trainers who are intent on furthering the  interest of more gender sensitive reporting in the southern African media.The package was produced as part of the training component of UNESCO’s Media  Development Project in Mozambique. The overall objective of the UNESCO project is to strengthen the human and technical capacity of the media – especially the  independent and private media – in Mozambique. This is part of the process of enhancing democracy, good governance and human rights in the country while promoting professionalism and editorial independence. This training package therefore addresses only one aspect of this process. Itsoverall objective is to ensure  the furtherance of more gender sensitive media reporting at a time of great social change in Mozambique and other parts of southern Africa.
  124. [.pdf]   GD144- Radio, Convergence and Development in Africa – Gender as a Cross-Cutting Issue
  125. A Paper Submitted to ‘Radio Convergence and Development in Africa’, by Mary Myers, September 2009 (updated November 2009).The purpose of the paper is to  argue for the consideration of gender issues in all research on radio, convergence and development in Africa. It was intended to guide the deliberations at our Butare  roundtable (September 2009) discussion on a research agenda and to ensure that we put gender considerations front and centre as we design our research  plans.
  126. [.pdf]   GD145- Gender, Media and development – The Role of the Media in the Cultural Struggle of Gender Transformation in Tanzania
  127. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insights on the role of the media in a symbolic struggle over the definition and status of women, and media’s potential  for socio-cultural change. A central idea in this study is that the movement from socialist to capitalist principles fosters conflicts between modern and traditional  values and ways of life, which also affects gender ideas and notions. The new situation represents both opportunities and risks for women’s liberation on both a  collective and an individual level. On the one hand, women are gaining independence by entering the economy with a force that was unthinkable just two decades  ago. On the other hand, there is a risk that women are blamed for ‘everything’ that goes wrong when traditional values clash with modern values and lifestyles. In  this new landscape, the media is an important cultural agent and an arena for conflicts and contestation. A key issue is how the media comes to grips with these  changes – the problems and tensions that arise in the process of modernization.
  128. [.pdf]   GD146- Working with the Media – A Guide for Training and Planning
  129. This guide has been developed following two “Gender, Education and the Media” workshops which were held in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2005 and in Dhaka,   Bangladesh in March 2006. It brings together learning from both workshops in order to help organisations working on gender and education develop and implement  media-advocacy strategies for gender equitable education. The guide is divided into 7 sections. Each section explores a different aspect of working with the media  on gender and education issues, starting with looking at education campaigning in general before focusing on gender issues in education, and the role of advocacy  and the media. You will find practical advice for working with the media on gender and education issues and suggestions of activities to help individuals or groups  generate discussion and develop their understanding of the issues addressed in more depth. These activities can be used as the basis for training others. A set of worksheets that correspond to these activities accompanies the guide and can be photocopied and used alongside the guide.
  130. [.pdf]   GD147- Media Space and Gender Construction – A Comparative Study of State Owned and Private Channels in the Post Liberalisation Period
  131. Gender is predominant phenomena and indeed produced and reproduced every day in term of femininity and masculinity. Under different contacts and process  gender is constructed every day, in which media is one of them. Visual media is one of them having much greater roles in compare to other available media such as print media, and electronic media. Thus, in the study visual media has been taken as a medium in regard to identify the predominant gender stereotypes. For this  study, four predominant Indian channels have been considered under the State owned and private media to regard the portrayed gender stereotypes from both  prime  and non-prime time. Among taken channels are DD (Doordarshan), Zee TV, Sony TV, and Star Plus TV. The State owned media have been considered for  the purpose of State’s view and their doing responsibility in regards to the portrayal of predominant gender stereotypes in both prime time and non prime time. This study comprehends a diagnostic look on visual media about their portrayal under both market and State’s responsibility since liberalization took place in India.  This is indeed true that both the private and State owned channels have own ways of interests regarding portrayal. Therefore this study broadens the research scope within the geographical perspective in non material spaces or metaphorical spaces like television, a virtual space. Which is considered as an important agent  towards gender construction?
  132. The Media and Development
    What’s the Story?
  133. Author: Gareth Locksley
  134. Published: January 2009
  135. Pages: 29
  136. [.pdf]   GD252- Gender sensitive indicators for media – A framework of indicators to gauge gender sensitivity in media operations and content
  137. Unesco, 2012, 185 pages
  138. Community Development
  139. [.pdf]   GD063- Gender Equality in Community Development
  140. Despite the inherent commitment of community development to addressing inequality – within the community and voluntary sector itself and in the implementation of  community development initiatives – significant gender inequalities exist. The following section outlines a number of issues which are the primary and most  persistent factors in gender inequality within the community and local development sector. They are presented within the   following categories: 1. Employment and  volunteering trends; 2. Underrepresentation of women in decision-making; 3. ‘Male culture’ of boards/committees; 4. Child-care; 5. Gender analysis; 6. Gender-disaggregated data; 7. Multiple disadvantage.
  141. [.pdf]   GD152- Gender Dimensions of Community-Driven Development Operations – A Toolkit for Practitioners
  142. The toolkit improves our understanding of why gender matters to the monitoring and evaluation of community-driven development (CDD) projects. It introduces M&E   topics that the non-specialist can find useful when constructing gender indicators. Furthermore, the toolkit presents a generic CDD results framework that provides   convenient categories for incorporating gender M&E indicators, tangible examples of gender indicators, and illustrates how gender M&E can be added to CDD  program results frameworks. The objective of this toolkit is to provide practical guidance to World Bank EAP (East Asia and Pacific) operational task teams and other community-driven development (CDD) practitioners (i.e. government/NGO staff ) on how to measure the gendered impact of CDD operations.
  143. GD151- EAC Gender & Community Development Analysis – Burundi
  144. For the sake of uniformity, the exercise on gender analysis in Burundi followed the same model such as presented in the Gender and Community Development  Framework for the East African Community. After a brief overview on the country profile and the good practices for each country, the model presents exploration of  the following elements: the legal framework, institutional mechanisms, capacity building for individuals and communities, issues of gender mainstreaming in priority  areas, research and documentation, gender and peace process.
  145. GD153- Gender in Community Development and Resource Management – An Overview
  146. This is the first paper in a series intended to examine the role of gender in community development and resource management. It outlines women’s roles in natural  resource management and economic development, as well as socioeconomic, institutional, policy, and program constraints on women and their participation in projects aimed at improving resource management and alleviating poverty. Brief examples of succsessful initiatives are also provided.
  147. GD154- Experiences of GL CRSP projects in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Kenya and Kyrgyzstan
  148. Addressing gender disparities in economic growth, particularly in agriculture, is not a new goal for development interventions, but after a hiatus in the 1990s it has  received new attention in the past decade. Four research and outreach projects of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program working in  Ethiopia, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Kenya, and Kyrgyzstan implemented activities which both raised women’s incomes and increased women’s income-earning  opportunities and contributed to larger goals of community development and well-being. The projects facilitated increased women’s participation into different types  of group-based activities, with consequences for improved incomes, health, and education outcomes. The capaCity-building process used in these different projects  and some of the results they achieved are described in this report.
  149. Concepts and Theory
  150. [.pdf]   GD001-Gender and Development Concepts and Definitions – Bridge
  151. Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) for its gender mainstreaming intranet resource. Selected concepts central to Gender and Development thinking are explained here. These are intended to help you explore some of the key ideas and issues in Gender and Development and their implications for policy and practice.
  152. [.pdf]   GD005-A Conceptual Framework for Gender and Development Studies
  153. This study intends to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework regarding the role and status of women in the development process. As such, it is based on different approaches which have been observed in the  ‘women and development’ discourse from the 1950s onwards. These approaches are: welfare; women in development (WID); gender and development (GAD); and empowerment.
  154. [.pdf]   GD026- Men Masculinty and gender development
  155. This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on  exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity.
  156. [.pdf]   GD044- Gender, ethnicity, development, and risk – University of Minnesota
  157. At its core, the mentoring movement tries to foster relationships that promote positive developmental trajectories in protégés and, potentially, in mentors as well. Mentoring relationships are shaped by the unique qualities  each partner contributes to the dyad. In order for the matches made by formal mentoring programs to succeed, they need to increase the likelihood that this idiosyncratic melding of needs and resources will occur. To do  so, they need to specify the needs or goals to be met and understand the processes through which the program and the relationship will work. This article focuses on three areas of individual difference that have implications for the design and implementation of programs: (1) gender; (2) race, ethnicity, and culture; and (3) development.
  158. [.pdf]   GD049- Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development
  159. The module is concerned with the integration and recognition of women and their inclusion as decision-makers indevelopment planning and policy-making, as well as other development activities: it also celebrates women’s  contributions to social, economic, and political development. The collaborative process was complicated, but rewarding. Although individuals or small teams authored specific chapters, feedback from the various writing
    teams enriched and enlarged everyone’s writing and thinking.
  160. [.pdf]   GD060- Gender – biological theory
  161. How do biopsychologists explain gender development? How have biological psychologists studied gender development?
  162. [.pdf]   GD062- Gender inequality in human development – theories and measurement
  163. inequalities in the opportunities and predicaments of women and men. Although this perspective has received some attention in past Reports, there is a strong case at this time for concentrating specifically on that issue for a  more comprehensive investigation of gender inequality in economic and social arrangements in the contemporary world. In performing this task, there is need for fresh economic and social analyses as well as careful and  probing empirical research. Women and men share many aspects of living together, collaborate with each other in complex and ubiquitous ways, and yet end up — often enough — with very different rewards and deprivations. This note is specifically concerned with developing a framework for “gender-equity-sensitive indicators” of achievements and freedoms. The methodology for this is explored in the sections that follow, ending  with specific recommendations to be put into practice.
  164. [.pdf]   GD088- Gender, ethics and empowerment – Dilemmas of development fieldwork
  165. For students and academics involved with development studies, fieldwork is often a critical  aspect of the research process. This process, however, can give rise to a plethora of ethical dilemmas relating to power gradients  between the researcher and the researched. Combined with this are complex issues of knowledge generation, ownership and exploitation. The sensitivity of these issues may be intensified when involving women as research  participants. Ethical issues regarding the validity and effectiveness of cross-cultural and cross-gendered fieldwork in Third World contexts are explored in this article, with examples drawn from recent research  practice. Following this review is a critical discussion concerning whether there is potential for the fieldwork process to be empowering for research participants.
  166. [.pdf]   GD099- Development, Gender , Gender and Crime
  167. Routine activities approach has gained considerable popularity in explaining crime rates. Its explanations are offered, however, without considering the approach’s theoretical scope. Recent research suggests that the  explanatory power of the perspective might differ across level of economic development and men’s and women’s arrest rates. To address the issue of theoretical applicability, separate regression equations are estimated for the scope conditions of development and gender, using cross-national time-series analyses. The findings suggest that the explanatory power differs when the scope conditions of development and gender are applied. The routine activities approach appears to explain minor theft arrest rates most accurately for men in developed nations. In less developed nations, none of the four routine activities indicators showed a relationship with men’s theft arrest rates. Two indicators, motivation and guardianship, evidenced a relationship with women’s minor theft rates. The implications for the generalizability of the routine activities concepts across development and gender are discussed.
  168. [.pdf]   GD100- Gender Differences in Identity and Intimacy Development
  169. The relationship between gender, identity and intimacy was studied in a sample of 301 collegeaged students. Previous research demonstrated that male psychosocial development corresponds with Erik Erikson’s theory,  where identity development influences intimacy development. Additional research based on Carol Gilligan’s ideas suggested that identity and intimacy development may be fused in females. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires pertaining to the concepts of identity and intimacy at two different points in time. Data were tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and cross-lag analyses. Results indicated that intimacy was a predictor of identity in males. There were no significant correlations found between identity and intimacy in females. Further examination is needed to determine whether the results are due to sampling error  or simply a cultural shift in psychosocial personality development.
  170. [.pdf]   GD101- Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation
    Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people’s daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender-role development and  functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct  throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad  network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a  fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of  influence.
  171. Conflict
  172. Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality : An Overview
  173. Journal title: >World Bank Research Observer, volume 28, issue 1
  174. Authors: Mayra Buvinic; Monica Das Gupta; Ursula Casabonne; Philip Verwimp
  175. Pages: 29
  176. War and Women’s Work: Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal
  177. Authors: Nidhiya Menon; Yana van der Meulen Rodgers
  178. Published: August 2011
  179. Pages: 49
  180. The Effects of Conflict on Fertility in Rwanda
  181. Authors: Kati Schindler; Tilman Brück
  182. Published: June 2011
  183. Pages: 47
  184. Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment, And Civil Conflict : Evidence From 55 Developing Countries, 1986-2003
  185. Author: Ostby, Gudrun
  186. Published: April 2007
  187. Pages: 34
  188. Culture
  189. [.pdf]   GD098- Gender, Culture and the Pacific – UNDP
  190. The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of how culture in the Pacific impacts gender equality and human development. The analysis addresses two views that are widely held in the Pacific: 1) that  gender is biologically determined, and 2) that culture is a sacred template should not be meddled with. Both these notions have attracted sound scholarly consideration in the Pacific, which has shown that rather than either  being fixed, gender is socially constructed and culture is constituted by contemporary milieu as much as it is by its traditional and historical genealogy.
  191. [.pdf]   GD156- Culture, Gender Equality and Development Cooperation
  192. Concerns about culture are frequently raised in relation to initiatives for gender equality in development cooperation. In some cases, program officers or partners are concerned that promotion of gender equality would “interfere with local culture”, and therefore feel that gender equality should not be promoted for ethical reasons. In  other cases, the cultural values of a particular area are described as a major constraint on efforts for gender equality, and therefore action is considered to be difficult for practical reasons.Are these concerns valid? What should we be doing as development workers?
  193. [.pdf]   GD158- Culture, Gender and Development in Africa
  194. This study aims to analyse the critical role of cultural concepts, traditions and practices in Africa’s development. Other specific objectives include a review of  diverse definitions of culture and development concepts as they intertwine to form a framework for assessing the increasing awareness of the need to mainstream  cultural approaches to development strategies in Africa. Another important objective is to reveal the centrality of cultural approach to development in the on-going  international call for an inclusive gender and development strategy to enhance sustainability. Using desk research, the study explored this relationship from the  historical, current and future perspectives. The new emphasis on cultural approach to development can be traced to the World Conference on Cultural Policies  (MONDIACULT) held in Mexico City in 1982 and the subsequent declaration of the United Nations Decade of Culture.
  195. [.pdf]   GD159- Integrating Human Rights,Culture and Gender In Programming – Participants Training Manual
  196. The Manual is organized as follows: MODULE 1  – Session 1: Introduction to the workshop – Session 2: Importance of Culture, Gender and Human Rights in Development Work – Session 3: The Culture Lens and its  links with the MDGs – Session 4: Development Practitioners as Facilitators, Communicators and Negotiators. MODULE 2 – Session 1: Applying the “Culture Lens” – Session 2: How to Apply the Culture Lens at the UNCT level – Session 3: Evaluation and Global Feedback – Session 4: How to Communicate, Negotiate and Mediate in a Culturally Sensitive Approach
  197. [.pdf]   GD160- Gender inequality and women’s rights in the Great Lakes – Can culture contribute to women’s empowerment
  198. Culture is an important capability that people bring into development. It influences development through its various forms of expression; attitudes and behavior  related to work, reward and exchange; traditions of public discussion and participation; social support and association; cultural sites of heritage and memory; and  influences on values and morals. In this paper, we address the issue of gender inequalities by looking at ways in which the cultural repertoire in the Great Lakes  region can contribute to women’s empowerment.
  199. [.pdf]   GD161- Another Side of India – Gender, Culture and Development
  200. This volume of essays may be seen as a continuation of the UNITWIN objective of linking academic centres and ‘action research’ for development, in this case with   a gender, culture and people-centered development thematic scope, initially involving Boston University; Visva-Bharati at Shantiniketan, West Bengal; Jamia  Millia  Islamia at New Delhi; Punjabi University at Patiala, Punjab, plus several non-governmental organizations (the Bhab Initiative, Cultural Resource Conservation  Initiative and the Lime Centre). The ten essays in Another Side of India: Gender, Culture and Development, all deal with the Indian experience and one with South  Asia more broadly. Three themes are represented: governance, from a local, decentralized perspective prompted by the Panchayat decentralization movement  beginning in the early nineties in India; livelihoods and education initiatives; and women’s rights. The ‘open’ format of these perspectives and experiences shared  through the ten essays is deliberate, meant to encourage the entry of additional partners (both North and South) into this UNITWIN arrangement. The intended goal  is lively debate from a variety of viewpoints.
  201. [.pdf]   GD162- Gender, culture and sustainable development—the Pacific way
  202. Pacific women argue that they have not been disadvantaged in the development process, because they have been shielded by customary. ways. The case studies  presented below show tremendous faith of Pacific women in the family system—the family systems that are central to both Pacific women’s vision of what  development should be (as documented in the Pacific Platform of Action for Sustainable Development) and to the strategies Pacific women are using to achieve their development goals. At the same time, while Pacific women are preserving the customary ways, the question must be raised of whether the customary ways,  as they are practised, are ensuring women’s physical, social, economic and spiritual well-being in these times of transition. Women’s vulnerability in times of rapid change is briefly discussed.
  203. [.pdf]   GD164- Gender Relations in Pacific cultures and their impact on the growth and development of children
  204. This discussion of gender relations in Pacific cultures and the impact on children’s development and growth, looks at the contemporary Pacific and the experiences  of children today. Pacific culture is not seen in terms of an idealized past or present – indeed it would be misleading and dangerous for children to maintain a  constant cultural ideal, if it does not reflect reality. The focus here is on gender relations in Pacific Island countries today and ways in which gender relations has  impacts on children.
  205. [.pdf]   GD165- A Cultural Perspective on Gender Diversity in Computing
  206. This paper presents a cultural perspective towards thinking about, and acting on, issues concerning gender and computer science and related fields. We posit and  demonstrate that the notion of a gender divide in how men and women relate to computing, traditionally attributed to gender differences, is largely a result of cultural  and environmental conditions. Indeed, the reasons for women entering – or not entering – the field of computer science have little to do with gender and a  lot to do with environment and culture as well as the perception of the field. Appropriate outreach, education and interventions in the micro-culture can have broad  impact, increasing participation in computing and creating environments where both men and women can flourish. Thus, we refute the popular notion that focusing  on gender differences will enhance greater participation in computing, and propose an alternative, more constructive approach which focuses on culture. We  illustrate the cultural perspective using specific case studies based in different geographical and cultural regions.
  207. [.pdf]   GD166- Discussing gender and international cultural relations
  208. The British Council’s awareness of gender as it affects cultural relations has developed and the Council was keen to explore its implications further. Thus it  engaged  Rosemary Bechler, a writer immersed in thinking about the relationship between human and political rights. Here she tackles the interplay of gender in  this relationship, outlining challenging, illuminating and relatively under-explored ideas. She talked to eight women who have made notable contributions in their  fields, including diversity, human rights, journalism and international relations. These interviews, held between December 2009 and December 2010, offer widely  differing perspectives and experiences. Women are far from a homogenous group, and the rich variety that exists when thinking about gender across diverse  cultures and its different impact on women depends on all those characteristics that make each one of us unique.
  209. [.pdf]   GD167- Gender, culture and urbanization
  210. In the developing world, women form a sizeable proportion of those who migrate from rural to urban areas in hope of a better life. But as they soon find out, urban  conditions and services are hostile to them and often permeated with the patriarchal culture that prevails in rural areas. This paper maps out the interplay between  gender, culture and urbanization, and how it enlarges or restricts the role of women in human settlements development around the world. It provides insights into the  way cultural and gender constructions relate to the social, economic, and cultural circumstances of women, and the extent to which women are involved in  addressing these unique circumstances.
  211. [.pdf]   GD168- Gender and Cultural Change – Supporting Resources Collection
  212. What has gender and development got to do with culture? Is gender and development (henceforth GAD) an interference in people’s cultures? How can these  issues   be tackled on a practical level? This booklet introduces a variety of resources that provide answers to these questions, in the form of summaries and  extracts from:
    • Key resources, including findings and recommendations for policy makers and practitioners
    • Case studies which challenge cultural norms both within societies and in the development industry
    • Examples of training manuals, guides and bibliographies useful to those wishing to implement work on cultural change in development
    This collection forms part of the BRIDGE Cutting Edge Pack ‘Gender and Cultural Change’ which includes an in brief bulletin and an overview report on the same  theme. It can be used on its own as an introduction to relevant resources, key ideas and experiences, or as a complement to other parts of the pack.
  213. [.pdf]   GD169- Culture, Power Asymmetries and Gender in Conflict Transformation
  214. In the first part, the author discusses the relationship between culture, attitudes to power and power asymmetry, constructions of gender and gender relations and  the impact of all three (and of their mutual influence) on conflict and its conduct. In the second part, she examines the implications of this for conflict transformation,  some of the tensions between the values and ideals it embodies and the realities of the situations it seeks to transform. In the third part of the  chapter, she considers how the needs of equality, cultural sensitivity and constructive approaches to power can be incorporated into organizations that seek to  contribute to conflict transformation, and suggest some elements of good practice in conflict intervention itself. She concludes by reflecting on the immensity of the  challenges that face us, suggesting that we need to add to rigour and analysis a more fluid and tentative approach.
  215. [.pdf]   GD170- Gender, Embodiment and Cultural Practice – Towards a Relational Feminist Approach
  216. This thesis thus seeks to develop a more historically-grounded, relational and politically accountable feminist approach to addressing essentialist constructions of  embodied ‘cultural practice’. Mapping feminist and other critical literatures, the author identifies three main approaches to linking embodied practices: the  ‘continuum’, ‘analogue’ and ‘subset’ models. Through three case study chapters, she conducts a comprehensive analysis of these models, and their potential discursive-material effects. Each case study focuses on a different set of practices which have been linked: ‘African’ female genital cutting and.-`Western’ body modifications; Muslim veiling and anorexia; and ‘passing’ practices associated with the categories of race, gender and sexuality. The author argues that rather than illustrating how particular practices or their imagined subjects are fundamentally similar, we should examine how they are constructed relationally in and through one another. This is possible through genealogically tracing how their historical trajectories of production intersect and inform one another. As an alternative to commonality-based comparative approaches, she advocates a ‘relational web model’ which traces multiple constitutive connections within a network of differently situated embodied practices or figures.
  217. [.pdf]   GD171- Validating Culture and Gender-Specific Constructs – A Mixed-Method Approach to Advance Assessment Procedures in Cross-Cultural Settings
  218. This article demonstrates an emerging mixed-method technique for developing culturally sound assessment tools, offers guidance on how to incorporate the overall approach in assessment, and provides a basis for thinking critically about the use of existing instruments when working with diverse populations.
  219. Is Deliberation Equitable? Evidence From Transcripts Of Village Meetings In South India
  220. Decision Making
  221. Women’s Decision Making Power and Human Development: Evidence from Pakistan
  222. Author: Xiaohui Hou
  223. Published: October 2011
  224. Pages: 33
  225. Development Cooperation
  226. [.pdf]   GD020-Integrating Gender Equality into Development Cooperation
  227. On 27 and 28 November 2003, the European Commission (EuropeAid) and Sida Evaluation Units organised a joint seminar entitled “Integrating Gender Equality into Development Co-operation: Drawing Lessons from  the Recent Evaluations by Sida and the European Commission”. The point of departure for the seminar, on which this report is based, was two comprehensive evaluations of the implementation and results of gender  mainstreaming strategies conducted by the Commission and Sida respectively. Both evaluations aimed to assess progress with the implementation of policy commitments on gender equality in development co-operation,  and to provide guidance on how to move forward with the strategy of gender mainstreaming in development co-operation with partner countries.
  228. [.pdf]   GD042- Approaches on Gender Equality in Development Cooperation
  229. The study consists of four parts: (i) introduction to the study and the theoretical background, (ii) policy level issues in the UN and Finland, (iii) project level and (iv) conclusions. After the general introduction the author introduces the data and methods used in this study. After methods follows a short introduction to the background and basics of international development assistance; what is it and why is it done. Next there is an introduction to selescted scientific discussion  topîcs on gender and gender equality, which form the theoretical basis for my study.
  230. [.pdf]   GD086- Gender Issues and Concerns in Financing for Development – INSTRAW
  231. The United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development (ICFfD) meeting, held in Monterrey, Mexico on 18-22 March 2002, was convened by the United Nations, the World Bank, the International  Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), to discuss how financial resources could be mobilized and channeled to fulfill the international commitments that were agreed to at previous United  Nations conferences and summits of the 1990s, including those in the 2000 Millennium Development Goals – MDGs.The objective of this background paper is to use a gendered approach in examining the development  financing strategies endorsed in the 2002 Monterrey Consensus. The paper seeks to identify what needs to be done to  ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated in the followup mechanisms to the conference as  well as in the broader global effort for economic and gender justice, peace and the realization of human rights.
  232. [.pdf]   GD172- Toolkit on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in EC Development Cooperation
  233. This Handbook has four sections… Section 1: Handbook on concepts and methods formainstreaming gender equality — Section 2: Ec priority areas for development cooperation: aspects for gender  analysis — Section 3: Glossary of gender and development terms — Section 4: Gender machineries, sources of information, contacts and networks
  234. [.pdf]   GD173- Gender and the Millenium Development Goals
  235. This issue of Gender Dialogue, looks at gender equality and women’s empowerment and the achievement of the MDGs.
  236. [.pdf]   GD175- Development Cooperation Report – Evaluation of ODA to the Gender sector
  237. The evaluation report relates to the extent to which gender issues have been integrated into ODA programs and projects in the period 1994-99 in South Africa. It presents tools and mechanisms to ensure gender-integrated ODA programs and projects in future, especially in the planning stages; and discusses tools and mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of projects and programs in terms of gender integration.
  238. [.pdf]   GD116- Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment – Donor Charts – March 2013
  239. Statistics based on DAC Members’ reporting on the Gender Equality Policy Marker, 2010-2011 Creditor Reporting System database.
  240. Evidence on Changes in Aid Allocation Criteria
  241. Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 23, issue 2
  242. Authors: Claessens, Stijn; Cassimon, Danny; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
  243. Pages: 24
  244. Disability
  245. [.pdf]   GD050- Mainstreaming Disability and Gender in Development Cooperation – IDDC
  246. This training manual incorporates the experiences and ideas discussed at the national training workshop on disability and gender which took place in December 2006 in Netherlands. The purpose of this training manual is to  provide a tool that will enable the reader to learn from best practice examples currently applied in specific areas of disability and development work. The training manual will also inform the reader on how to reproduce a  similar training module in the future under different circumstances, as a way to spread knowledge and to reach out to an increasingly wide audience.
  247. [.pdf]   GD176- Mainstreaming disability in development – Lessons from gender mainstreaming
  248. In this paper DFID uses the experience of gender mainstreaming as a lens through which to view and reflect on some of the proposals for mainstreaming disability in development.
  249. [.pdf]   GD177- Disability Rights, Gender, and Development A Resource Tool for Action
  250. Disability Rights, Gender, and Development: A Resource Tool for Action provides valuable insights on the theory and practice of human rights-based approaches to development and contributes to this body of knowledge by designing innovative approaches to the implementation of the CPRD (Convention on the Rights of  Persons with Disabilities) in gender and child sensitive development activities. Building on existing experience in other human rights conventions, with a focus on  the linkages among the CRPD, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the  Child (CRC), the resource manual is designed to provide an intersectional analysis of the different treaties and build capacity among all stake holders to use  the normative frameworks of the different conventions  within a holistic framework of interrelated rights.
  251. [.pdf]   GD178- Mainstreaming Gender in Disability and Rehabilitation – A development perspective
  252. Part 1 of the paper asserts the links between disability and human rights by highlighting the relationship between disability, gender and development by examining  the ways in which poverty, environmental factors and gender issues determine access to health services by physically impaired women, men and young people in South Asia. It discusses the impact of gender relations on disability and suggest that the social construct of gender roles in society greatly affects the ways in which disabled women and men are perceived by others around them, their ability or otherwise to live with the disability and their access to rehabilitation services.   Within the context of good governance, the paper reviews good approaches to rehabilitation service delivery that reflect the realties of life experiences of disabled   women and men. The popularity of community based programmes in South Asia is discussed asan effective operational strategy for poor under-resourced  countries. In Part 2 of the paper the case study of a community hospital in Bangladesh specialising in the provision of medical care and rehabilitation services for  paralysed women, men and children is used as a basis to examine the extent to which a uniqueand specialised service was able to meet the gender needs of its  patients.
  253. [.pdf]   GD179- Disabled People and Development
  254. This document aims to provide a consolidated set of guidelines to identify and address the issues affecting people with disabilities in poverty reduction strategies.  These will assist people in the identification, design, preparation, and implementation of projects. The main contribution of this document is that it provides the  information and analytical tools for identifying the extent to which disability is a development issue; and for analyzing, identifying, and addressing the needs of  people with disabilities within development. The tools include a disability checklist, consisting of a set of key questions for investigation; suggestions for including  disability in programming; resources agencies and literature to access for more knowledge on disability issues; strategies for implementation; and case studies.
  255. [.pdf]   GD182- Disability Inclusion – Women
  256. Currently, very little gender-specific work is inclusive of women with a disability. There is a need for organisations working in the field of women and gender to better  understand how disability is experienced. The information in this resource is relevant for both women-specific activities along with gender programs.
  257. [.pdf]   GD183- Guide to gender mainstreaming in public disability policies
  258. This guide, fundamentally technical in character, seeks to explore how to effectively include women and girls with disabilities in different areas of life, often  overlooked in public policies, and to offer guidance to policy makers and third-sector activists on the topic. The main threads throughout the guide are the two  benchmark United Nations treaties: the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW, and the Convention on the Rights of  Persons with Disabilities, CRPD, and the 2nd Manifesto on the Rights of Women and Girls with Disabilities in the European Union – A toolkit for activists and  policymakers, adopted by the General Assembly of the European Disability Forum in May 2011, on which the contents of the guide are based. In eleven chapters  the guide covers a number of themes including accessibility, independent living, training and employment, education, violence and abuse, health and sexual and  reproductive rights, among others, under the guiding principles of equality and non-discrimination on the basis of gender or disability.
  259. [.pdf]   GD185- Disability and International Cooperation and Development – A Review of Policies and Practices
  260. This review examines recent policies of major multilateral and bilateral agencies, which they have employed to include disability in development aid. It also  provides,  whenever possible, examples of their programs. This review does not assess the merits or impact of those policies or practices; it only provides their  mapping. The content of the summaries of individual organizations and agencies updates and extends previous compilation efforts by Inclusion International (2005 a, b), Disability Awareness in Action (1995), Handicap International/ Christoffel-Blindenmission (2006), and United Nations (2009). The review indicates the following  five emerging trends: (i) disability has become a part of international cooperation and development aid; (ii) international cooperation policies often link disability to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); (iii) the agencies often combine several approaches to frame the inclusion of disability in development, including human  rights, participation, inclusion and development; (iv) disability is included both through specific/ targeted and mainstreaming/ inclusion/integration programs; and (v)  approaches, policies and programs are dynamic and have changed over time.
  261. [.pdf]   GD187- Social Analysis and Disability – A Guidance Note
  262. This Guidance Note offers a practical guide to integrating social analysis and disability-inclusive development into sector and thematic projects and programs of the   World Bank. Based on the Social Analysis Sourcebook, the Note provides an easy-to-access resource for the social analysis of disability. The Guidance Note  examines disability via sectors, cross-cutting issues, as well as by each of the Bank’s Regions. It also demonstrates how to ensure disability-inclusive development in the project cycle. The 12 boxes found throughout the following text, highlight a cornucopia of disability-related issues from human rights to  institutional barriers for youth with disabilities. The seven annexes offer additional in depth information: Disability Policy checklists, sample Terms of References  (TOR), an extensive reference list and a list of resources available on the Internet. This guidance note is not intended to promote special or separate disability and  development projects, but rather to assist Bank projects in better incorporating the needs and concerns of people with disabilities, as well as integrating a disability perspective into ongoing sector and thematic work programs, and to adopt an integrated and inclusive approach to disability.
  263. Economic Implications of Chronic Illness and Disability in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union
  264. Editor: Cem Mete
  265. Published: February 2008
  266. Pages: 136
  267. Disability, Poverty, and Schooling in Developing Countries:
    Results from 14 Household Surveys
  268. Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 22, issue 1
  269. Author: Filmer, Deon
  270. Pages: 23
  271. Disaster Management
  272. [.pdf]   GD085- Integrating Gender in Disaster Management in Small Island Developing States – UNDP
  273. UNDP is facilitating an inter-regional programme to foster south-south partnership between CDEMA, SPC and other regional partners to share best practices and strategies around common climate risk management issues facing SIDS. A critical element of this programme is the gender mainstreaming. Accordingly, this guide has been prepared as a useful tool for disaster managers and practitioners working in small islands states. The guide  seeks to support existing international frameworks that advocate gender equality. In the area of risk management and its relation to development,the defining international instrument is the Hyogo Framework of Action, approved as a result of the 2005 UN’s International Conference on Disaster Reduction. The Hyogo Framework holds the “inclusion of a gender perspective and cultural diversity” as cross-cutting principle and considers these to be fundamental for successfully increasing local, national and regional capacities to anticipate and deal with risks, and minimize their impact.
  274. [.pdf]   GD096- Integrating Gender Issues in Disaster Risk Management Policy Development and in Projects
  275. This note on Intregrating Gender issues in Disaster Risk Management is the second in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in disaster risk management (DRM). The first part of this note looks at mainstreaming gender considerations into policy development. The second part focuses on the World Bank project cycle identifying entry points and providing practical advice and links to good practice examples.
  276. [.pdf]   GD070- The Gender Dimensions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction
  277. The purpose of this chapter is to construct a framework for understanding the gender dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction (PCR), in order to strengthen assessments, project design, and policy-formulation – all with  the aim of achieving the overarching goals of sustainable peace, participation and prosperity. Based on our experiences working with and reviewing projects in post-conflict settings, this chapter suggests gender dimensions that may strengthen programmes, promote gender equality, and enhance returns on PCR investments. It is predicated on the conviction that building and maintaining peace and prosperity requires attention to gender roles  and relations in the post-conflict arena. To illustrate the gender dimensions, we use examples from the World Bank and other donors, including a sample of the Bank’s large post-conflict reconstruction development loans  and its small post-conflict fund (PCF) grants.
  278. Discrimination
  279. Discrimination in Latin America
    An Economic Perspective
  280. Editors: Hugo Nopo; Alberto Chong; Andrea Moro
  281. Published: December 2009
  282. Economic Development
  283. [.pdf]   GD016-Maximising the Economic, Social and Environmental Role of Women – OECD
  284. This report is a contribution by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) and its cross-cutting work on gender. It aims to increase understanding of the role of women in maintaining the three pillars – economic, social and environmental – of sustainable development. The report has been prepared by the OECD Horizontal Programme  on Sustainable Development and is based largely on OECD analyses. The data pertain primarily to the situation of women in OECD countries.
  285. [.pdf]   GD025- Economic Development and Gender Equality – World Politics
  286. Drawing on Simon Kuznets’s thesis regarding a curvilinear relationship between economic growth and income inequality, the authors suggest that economic development and gender inequality also exhibit a nonmonotonic  relationship, marked by three phases.1 In the first phase, economic development should improve gender equality; in the second phase, equality should plateau or even decline slightly; and in the third phase, it should rise  again.
  287. [.pdf]   GD055- Gender Mainstreaming in Local Economic Development (LED) Strategies …
  288. This guide is designed to assist LED practitioners – staff from international organizations, international development agencies and local authorities– in identifying and addressing the sometimes different needs and priorities of  women and men, facilitating their full participation at every stage of the LED process, and contributing to gender equality objectives and outcomes. Using this guide will enable practitioners to : 1) understand why gender  equality should be pursued at the local level ; 2) be aware of the barriers to women’s participation that may be encountered ; and 3) identify and implement strategies for addressing gender concerns throughout the LED
    process.
  289. [.pdf]   GD056- Micro-Macro Linkages Between Gender, Development, and Growt: Implications for the Caribbean Region
  290. This paper contributes to the gender, development and growth literature, exploring the channels by which gender inequality affects, and in important ways, constrains economic development and growth in the Caribbean  region. To carry out this task, the author addresses three key questions regarding gender inequality. First, what institutional factors and structures cause women to live in economically precarious conditions to a greater extent than men? Second, what are the social benefits—the spillover effects—of reducing gender inequality for society as a whole? And finally, what policies might promote gender equity in well-being while simultaneously  promoting Caribbean development and growth?
  291. [.pdf]   GD058- Gender, Economic Development and Islam – A Perspective from France
  292. Muslims do less well on the French labor market than their non Muslim counterparts. One explanation for this relative failure can be characterized by the following syllogism: (1) the empowerment of women is a sine qua  non for economic progress; (2) in-group norms among Muslims do not empower women; and hence (3) Muslim communities will underperform economically relative to non-Muslim communities. This paper, relying on a  unique identification strategy that isolates religion from national origin and ethnicity, and on experimental as well as survey evidence collected in France, puts this syllogism to a test.
  293. [.pdf]  GD032-Analysing the Gender Dimensions of Tourism as a Development Strategy
  294. Although highly contested, the links between tourism and development are now wellestablished in academic and policy circles. Less clear is the potential of tourism to contribute more specifically to the achievement of the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG3), to ‘promote gender equality and empower women’. In order to explore this issue, this paper offers a feminist critique of contemporary tourism development policy.  Drawing together extensive research into the gender dimensions of tourism, the author set out the tensions between feminist visions of development and tourism development policy.
  295. [.pdf]   GD057- Trade, sustainable development and gender – Unctad
  296. The Pre-UNCTAD X Expert Workshop convened in Geneva focused on the theme of trade, sustainable development and gender. The meeting was organized in  line with the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing  and the Platform of Action (1995), the UNCTAD IX Midrand Declaration (1996) and the agreed  conclusions on gender mainstreaming (ECOSOC, 1997).The collection of papers reproduced in this volume not only  reflects the substantive issues reviewed in  this Expert Workshop, but also captures the spirit and enthusiasm of the participants displayed during their working sessions.
  297. The Role of Men in the Economic and Social Development of Women: Implications for Gender Equality
  298. Author: Lídia Farré
  299. Published: January 2013
  300. Pages: 39
  301. Sustaining Educational and Economic Momentum in Africa
  302. Author: World Bank
  303. Published: May 2010
  304. Pages: 51
  305. Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform
    A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners
  306. Authors: Sevi Simavi; Clare Manuel; Mark C. Blackden
  307. Published: January 2010
  308. Pages: 236
  309. Women in Vanuatu
    Analyzing Challenges to Economic Participation
  310. Authors: Amanda Ellis; Claire Manuel; Jozefina Cutura; Chakriya Bowman
  311. Published: April 2009
  312. Pages: 103
  313. Series: Directions In Development – Private Sector Development
  314. Economic And Social Impacts Of Self-Help Groups In India
  315. Authors: Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
  316. Published: April 2009
  317. Pages: 35
  318. Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam: A Socioeconomic Perspective
  319. Authors: Baulch, Bob; Chuyen, Truong Thi Kim; Haughton, Dominique; Haughton, Jonathan
  320. Published: April 2002
  321. Pages: 43
  322. Gender Equality, Poverty And Economic Growth
  323. Authors: Morrison, Andrew; Raju, Dhushyanth; Sinha, Nistha
  324. Published: November 2007
  325. Pages: 57
  326. Gender and Economic Growth in Tanzania: Creating Opportunities for Women
  327. Author: World Bank
  328. Published: October 2007
  329. Pages: 141
  330. Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya : Unleashing the Power of Women
  331. Author: World Bank
  332. Published: April 2007
  333. Pages: 120
  334. [.pdf]GD253- Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity
  335. Education
  336. Gender-Targeted Conditional Cash Transfers: Enrollment, Spillover Effects and Instructional Quality
  337. Author: Amer Hasan
  338. Published: March 2010
  339. Pages: 59
  340. The Education System in Malawi
  341. Author: World Bank
  342. Editors: Mathieu Brossard; Diane Coury; Michael Mambo
  343. Published: February 2010
  344. Teachers in Anglophone Africa
    Issues in Teacher Supply, Training, and Management
  345. Author: Aidan Mulkeen
  346. Published: December 2009
  347. Pages: 199
  348. Does Education Affect HIV Status? Evidence from five African Countries
  349. Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 23, issue 2
  350. Author: de Walque, Damien
  351. Pages: 25
  352. Educational And Health Impacts Of Two School Feeding Schemes
  353. Authors: Kazianga, Harounan; de Walque, Damien; Alderman, Harold
  354. Published: June 2009
  355. Pages: 44
  356. Emerging Evidence on Vouchers and Faith-Based Providers in Education
  357. Editors: Harry Anthony Patrinos; Quentin Wodon; Felipe Barrera-Osorio
  358. Published: June 2009
  359. Pages: 186
  360. Series: Directions In Development – Human Development
  361. Type: Book
  362. Addressing Educational Disparity
  363. Authors: Jhingran, Dhir; Sankar, Deepa
  364. Published: June 2009
  365. Pages: 34
  366. Type: Working paper
  367. Number: 4955
  368. The Role and Impact of Public-Private Partnerships in Education
  369. The Evolving Regulatory Context for Private Education in Emerging Economies
    Discussion Paper and Case Studies
  370. Editors: Svava Bjarnason; Harry Patrinos; Jee-Peng Tan
  371. Published: December 2008
  372. Pages: 65
  373. At the Crossroads
    Choices for Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
  374. Author: Bank World
  375. Editor: Adriaan M. Verspoor
  376. Published: August 2008
  377. Pages: 387
  378. Girl’s Education in the 21st Century
  379. Gender Equality, Empowerment and Growth
  380. Editors: Mercy Miyang Tembon; Lucia Fort
  381. Published: August 2008
  382. Pages: 313
  383. Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
  384. Author: World Bank
  385. Editor: Esi Sutherland-Addy
  386. Published: July 2008
  387. Pages: 63
  388. Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data
  389. Authors: Dreher, Axel; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Thiele, Rainer
  390. Pages: 24
  391. The Challenge of Expanding Secondary Education and Training in Madagascar
  392. Author: World Bank
  393. Published: May 2008
  394. Pages: 97
  395. An African Exploration of the East Asian Education Experience
  396. Editors: Jee-Peng Tan; Birger Fredriksen
  397. Published: April 2008
  398. Pages: 374
  399. Toward a Better Future
  400. Education and Training for Economic Development in Singapore since 1965
  401. Authors: Sing Kong Lee; Chor Boon Goh; Birger Fredriksen
  402. Published: April 2008
  403. Pages: 206
  404. The Impact Of Private Provision Of Public Education : Empirical Evidence From Bogota’s Concession Schools
  405. Author: Barrera-Osorio, Felipe
  406. Published: February 2007
  407. Pages: 30
  408. Education Inputs in Uganda: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Learning Achievement in Grade Six
  409. Author: Harriet Nannyonjo
  410. Published: June 2007
  411. Pages: 90
  412. Strengthening the Education Sector Response to HIV&AIDS in the Caribbean
  413. Author: World Bank
  414. Published: January 2008
  415. Pages: 30
  416. Transitions in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Equity and Efficiency Issues
  417. Author: World Bank
  418. Published: January 2008
  419. Pages: 52
  420. Governance, Management, and Accountability in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
  421. Published: January 2008
  422. Energy
  423. Energy, Gender and Development: What are the Linkages? Where is the Evidence?
  424. Authors: Gunnar Köhlin; Erin O. Sills; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; Christopher Wilfong
  425. Published: September 2011
  426. Pages: 75
  427. Entrepreneurship
  428. [.pdf] GD035- The Gender Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index
  429. Produced by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI), the Gender-GEDI is the world’s first diagnostic tool that comprehensively identifies and analyzes the conditions that foster high potential female entrepreneurship development. This initial 17-country pilot study provides key insights across several regions and levels of national economic development. Female entrepreneurship at large includes a vast array of activities – ranging from petty market traders and shopkeepers to biochemical company start-ups.
  430. [.pdf] GD196- Skills and entrepreneurship – Bridging the technology and gender divide
  431. Technology, particularly the information and communication technology, is viewed as a potent force in transforming social, economic and political life across the globe. In many instances, the continuous development and application of technology has created vast new economic and employment opportunities. Most developing countries are harnessing the use of technology to accelerate their development processes. With an estimated 500 million people entering the global workforce over the next decade, coming to grips with the technological challenge is crucial. Without being “plugged in”, millions of women and men risk being left behind. Since women represent a significant majority of those who do not have access, there is a clear gender dimension to the technological divide. Therefore the technology divide is multifold.
  432. [.pdf] GD197- A Comparative Study on Gender and Entrepreneurship Development – Still a Male’s World within UAE cultural Context
  433. The study probes the issue of gender equality regarding entrepreneurship development within the UAE cultural context. The question which poses itself is whether female entrepreneurs get equal treatment and opportunities as their male counterparts. In addition, the study investigates the primary reasons behind few female entrepreneurs compared with their male counterparts in the UAE. In the outset, the study also compares and contrast the characteristics, motivation, management and marketing tools used by both male and female entrepreneurs and critically explore critically the effect of gender on time invested in running the business and entrepreneurship practices in the UAE context. In this context, the author of the present research is interested in conducting a survey on entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates to investigate the differences and similarities between male and female entrepreneurs and whether gender is a key factor on the differences and similarities between entrepreneurs.
  434. [.pdf] GD198- Gender Equality in Education,Employment and Entrepreneurship – Final Report to the MCM 2012
  435. This report from the OECD Gender Initiative is designed to inform, share policy experiences and good practices, and help governments promote gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship. It looks at the state of play from a gender perspective across all three issues, whether inequalities exist, how and why they have developed, and which obstacles need to be overcome to move towards greater equality. It offers policy advice to governments as to how they can create a more level playing field. Much of this advice is aimed at alleviating concerns around the experience of women and girls and removing the obstacles to equal participation in the economy, but gender equality is not just about the empowerment of women. This study also looks at why in many countries more success at school for girls has gone hand in hand with less success for boys in some subjects, why fathers may find it difficult to take full advantage of family-friendly policies and what can be done to improve matters. A greater sharing of paid and unpaid work is also about changing norms, culture, mind-sets and attitudes. Such changes take time, but policy has a role to play in raising public awareness of gender biases in society and promoting change.
  436. [.pdf] GD200- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Activity – An Analysis of Informal Institutional Factors
  437. The aim of this paper is to determine and compare the influence of certain informal institutional factors upon the decision to become an entrepreneur among men and women entrepreneurs in Spain. To attain this objective we adopt a socio-cultural institutional approach. We undertake a logit model using a robust Spanish dataset from 2003. The main contribution of this paper lies on the identification of specific factors that influence women entrepreneurship, which differ from those of men’s. The results show the importance of entrepreneurial self-confidence, as a common factor for both women and men entrepreneurial activity. The main result indicates that the presence of entrepreneurial role models is an important informal institutional factor explaining the difference between women and men’s entrepreneurial activity.
  438. [.pdf] GD201- Gender, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Career Intentions – Implications for Entrepreneurship Education
  439. Women play a substantial role in entrepreneurship throughout the world. In advanced market economies, women own 25% of all businesses and the number of women-owned businesses in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America are increasing rapidly (Estes, 1999; Jalbert, 2000). In the United States alone, the 6.7 million privately held majority women-owned businesses account for $1.19 trillion in sales and employ 9.8 million people. Moreover, the growth rate of women-owned businesses is impressive (Women-Owned Businesses, 2004). Between 1997 and 2004, employment in womenowned businesses increased by 39% compared to 12% nationally, and revenues rose by 46% compared to 34% among all privately held U.S. businesses. These data reinforce the value of studying women’s entrepreneurship, and likely account for the increased attention being paid to this area by scholars and educators. However, current trends mask the fact that men continue to be more active in entrepreneurship than women worldwide.We are motivated to further explore these relationships by our belief that a more complete understanding of the interplay between gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention 2 is key to improving the participation rate of women in entrepreneurial activities. In this article, we explore these relationships at two important life stages for individuals who are, or are potentially, interested in entrepreneurship as a career.
  440. [.pdf] GD202- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurship – Evidence from GEM
  441. Being a significant component of the contemporary business world, female entrepreneurial activity is considered a key element of economic growth worldwide, and especially in emerging markets. The present study explores gender differences in efficiency-driven countries based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data through correlation and regression analyses. An important finding of the paper is that training on starting a new business as a common factor, has a greater influence on female entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, training should be considered an essential issue when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity in general, of both female and male entrepreneurs.
  442. GD203- Female Entrepreneurship Resource
  443. Female-run enterprises are steadily growing all over the world, contributing to household incomes and growth of national economies. However, women face time, human, physical, and social constraints that limit their ability to grow their businesses. The Resource Point on Female Entrepreneurship responds to increasing demands for best practices and tools to integrate gender in private sector development and entrepreneurship promotion programs, and address the needs and constraints faced by female entrepreneurs. It is designed to have two functions – provide practical guidance and recommendations, and serve as a clearinghouse of programs, emerging research and data on the topic.
  444. [.pdf] GD204- USAID_State Entrepreneurship Toolkit_0
  445. The Entrepreneurship Toolkit has been developed to help USAID Mission and U.S. Embassy officers in the field in the design, implementation, and monitoring of entrepreneurship development programs. The Business Growth Initiative (BGI) project, throughout the course of interviewing Global Entrepreneurship Program (GEP) partners and non-GEP organizations, and supplemented by external research, actively focused on identifying, categorizing and compiling real-life examples that can be accurately defined as best practices of entrepreneurship, defined as a method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means. While it was certainly not BGI’s intention, nor within its scope, to develop a comprehensive guide to showcase all potential entrepreneurship best practices, significant efforts were made to find unique and compelling examples that can be effectively used by USG officials. With this in mind, BGI looked for a whole host of different approaches that have been successfully used, in order to provide its’ audience with a fair and representative sample of the types of activities implemented in the field of entrepreneurship.
  446. [.pdf] GD205- Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform – A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners
  447. This guide aims to provide fresh thinking to solve common issues women entrepreneurs face in the investment climate area. It presents actionable, practical, replicable, and scalable tools. Specifically, the guide seeks to enable devel opment practitioners and policy makers who are not gender specialists to (i) diagnose gender issues in an investment climate reform
    area, (ii) design practical solutions and recommendations to address gender constraints, and (iii) include effective monitoring and evaluation tools to oversee the implementation of those
    recommendations. While the guide is primarily directed to project leaders in IFC and World Bank Group managing investment climate reform projects, it will also be of use to a wider audience, including policy makers, the donor community, women’s business associations, academics, think tanks, and development practitioners who have an interest in gender and private sector development issues.
  448. [.pdf] GD206- Strengthening Access to Finance for Women-Owned
  449. This report highlights key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance. Due to their high growth potential, women-owned SMEs in developing countries are of particular interest. The report therefore focuses on the presence of womenowned SMEs in developing countries across different types of enterprises, and the ability of these business owners to access finance to grow their businesses; identifies financial and non-financial institutions with scalable approaches to increase access to finance for women entrepreneurs in developing countries; pinpoints specific knowledge gaps for which further research is recommended; and, provides policy recommendations on expanding access to finance for women entrepreneurs.
  450. [.pdf] GD207- Support for Growth-oriented Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania – An Overview Report
  451. This report is divided into two parts and six main sections. Part One covers the ackground information to the ILO-AfDB country-level studies on growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The first section provides the overview of the previous work of the AfDB and the ILO in support of women entrepreneurs and MFIs, and gives the origins of the current collaboration. The second section discusses the context for a growing global interest in the phenomenon of women entrepreneurs. It also provides and introduction to the investigative process and details of the methodology used in gathering information for the report, and presents a summary of key outcomes. The third section gives an overview of the situation facing women entrepreneurs in each of the three study countries. Part Two presents the findings and recommendations resulting from the application of the analytical integrated framework in the three countries. Section four presents an adapted and modified integrated framework which provides a systematic methodology for assessing key factors that can contribute effectively to women’s entrepreneurship development policies and programmes. The fifth section gives particular emphasis to good practices identified at the country level. The sixth and final section provides some general conclusions based on the entire assessment process.
  452. [.pdf] GD208- Doing Business – Women in Africa
  453. Doing Business – Opportunities for Women The Doing Business project has joined forces with theWorld Bank Group Gender Action Plan to launch a two-year research program on reforms that improve business opportunities for women. The project is identifying legal and regulatory barriers facing businesswomen, compiling a data base of relevant laws for each country, and determining reforms that are likely to have the biggest benefits for women. Doing Business:Women in Africa is the first in a series of regional reports designed to showcase successful women entrepreneurs and explore how they overcame obstacles to business creation and growth. The seven women profiled here represent countries from across the continent. Their generosity in sharing their stories, their successes and the obstacles they faced pave the way for more opportunities for other women entrepreneurs.
  454. [.pdf] GD209- Promoting women’s financial inclusion – A toolkit
  455. This toolkit is aimed at staff in governments, donor agencies and NGOs, who want information about how to design and implement programmes to enhance the financial inclusion of women. This might be as part of a broader programme of financial inclusion designed for the population as a whole, or as part of a range of activities designed to improve gender equality and the economic life-chances of women. In both cases, knowledge about the different approaches taken by past projects and their impacts and lessons, will be of value. This toolkit uses lessons drawn from past projects on improving financial inclusion, together with more general research literature, to discuss how such programmes can be effectively designed, implemented and monitored. This toolkit is mainly intended to help people designing programmes that use financial inclusion as a way to improve women’s economic empowerment. However, financial inclusion can empower women beyond their economic situations. As such, the toolkit will also be of interest to people working on programmes seeking broader empowerment outcomes for women, e.g. where financial inclusion may be only one of a range of objectives – such as an education programme with a savings component or a health programme with a microfinance component. It would also be appropriate to consider measuring the effectiveness of a women’s financial inclusion programme using indicators defined in social or even psychological terms, rather than just financially or economically.
  456. [.pdf] GD210- The Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook For Business Environment Reform
  457. This is a Handbook for Business Enabling Environment (BEE) practitioners offering guidance on Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) and within this the task of Impact Assessment (IA). The purpose of this Handbook is to strengthen awareness about M&E, engage interest in M&E, and to clarify what it entails, specifically for BEE practitioners.The Handbook is aimed at BEE practitioners with little experience or knowledge of M&E approaches and practices. It is not intended to make people M&E specialists. The Handbook is a resource for M&E work and an accessible means of sharing current good practice on M&E amongst BEE practitioners. Its messages and guidance are relevant for all BEE practitioners.This Handbook provides detailed ‘how-to’ approaches for undertaking M&E including: definitions of basic M&E terminology, indicators, how to integrate M&E into project cycle management, and how to use evaluation techniques. The Handbook draws from both research and case studies to highlight good practice and identify lessons of experience from a range of BEE projects and from a variety of interventions and development partners Its format is as a user guide with practical tips, checklists and step-by-step instructions based on field experience.
  458. [.pdf] GD211- A Path Out of Poverty – Developing rural and women entrepreneurship a path out of poverty
  459. This brochure describes UNIDO’s “Rural and Women Entrepreneurship (RWE) Development Programme”, which is managed by the Small and Medium Enterprises Branch. As a core
    contribution of UNIDO to poverty reduction, the programme supports rural people and women in their aspirations for entrepreneurial initiatives. People living in the rural peripheries, and especially women, shoulder the burden of the world’s poverty, particularly in the Least Developed Countries and sub-Saharan Africa. They have been deprived for too long from participating in the opportunities and benefits of economic growth and globalization. Reducing urban-rural disparities and gender inequalities is a crucial element for any poverty reduction strategy. Mobilizing the potential productivity of rural people and particularly of women is indispensable to achieve the resilient economic growth that will pull people above the poverty line. Therefore, the RWE Programme aims at promoting a conducive business environment and at building institutional and human capacities that will encourage and support the entrepreneurial initiatives of rural people and women.
  460. [.pdf] GD212- Scoping Study of Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Interventions – Knowledge Gaps for Assessment of Project Performance
  461. The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED) brings together bilateral and multilateral agencies and private foundations to promote economic opportunity and self-reliance through private sector development in developing countries2. The DCED’s Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Working Group aims ‘to harness the knowledge and expertise of DCED member agencies to overcome some of the major obstacles to Women’s Entrepreneurship Development’. Although the DCED is a member-based committee, the WED Working Group is comprised of DCED members as well as other agencies who participate as observers in its activities from time to time. This study took place between April 1 and June 30, 2012. It followed an inclusive approach whereby DCED members and WED WG members were invited to participate, in addition to other agencies who participate in the WED WG as observers. The intention was to include as much material from as many agencies as possible, not limiting the enquiry only to those who had participated previously in the activities of the Working Group. The ILO-African Development Bank framework on WED, the UNCTAD Information Economy Report 20113 as well as other reference documents highlighted by the WED Working Group members were used to frame the stocktaking and knowledge gap analysis.
  462. [.pdf] GD213- Powerful synergies Gender Equality, Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability
  463. This volume is a collection of contributions by gender and sustainable development experts who explore the interconnections between gender equality, economic development and environmental sustainability. The experts provide insights, critiques, lessons learned and concrete proposals for promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment in international and national sustainable development efforts. The authors address development challenges across a range of sectors and global development issues such as energy, health, education, food security, climate change, human rights, consumption and production patterns and urbanization.The papers address gender issues within and across the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, and emphasize the need to draw on both women’s and men’s perspectives to inform the green economy. Some papers demonstrate how women and their communities could benefit from genderresponsive climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In exploring multiple facets of economic development, the papers present how sustainable forms of economic development and consumption patterns could strengthen women’s resilience against
    natural disasters.
  464. Female-Owned Firms In Latin America
    Characteristics, Performance, And Obstacles To Growth
  465. Author: Miriam Bruhn
  466. Published: November 2009
  467. Pages: 28
  468. Egyptian Women Workers and Entrepreneurs
  469. Editor: Sahar Nasr
  470. Published: February 2010
  471. Pages: 78
  472. Gender in Bolivian Production
    Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms
  473. Editors: Yaye Sakho; Trine Lunde; Maria Arribas-Banos
  474. Published: August 2009
  475. Pages: 61
  476. The Environment for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa
  477. Authors: Nadereh Chamlou; Leora Klapper; Silvia Muzi
  478. Editor: NA
  479. Published: June 2008
  480. Pages: 94
  481. Equality Results
  482. [.pdf] GD188- CIDA’s Framework for Assessing Gender Equality Results
    This framework responds to the need to assess progress on the implementation of CIDA’s Policy on Gender Equality. It is also an important
    advance in assessing equality as a crosscutting policy theme.The central question this framework is designed to address is the following:
    To what extent do CIDA’s development results reflect its policy commitment to gender equality?
  483. [.pdf] GD189- Gender equality results of public sector projects and programmes of the African Development Bank (2009-2011)
    The African Development Bank’s Strategy for 2013-2022 “At the Centre of Africa’s Transformation” clearly defines gender equality as an important aspect of inclusive growth and  positions the Bank to reduce gender inequalities through a “focus on promoting women’s economic empowerment, strengthening women’s legal and property rights and enhancing knowledge management and capacity building.”7 The aim of this assignment is to review the contribution of public sector operations to gender equality results in Africa in order to  further the mainstreaming of gender within the Bank. 2. The report sets out the background to the review, in order to provide a recent history of the AfDB in terms of mainstreaming gender. It then states the objectives of the review, methodology and limitations thereof, followed by the main body of the report, consisting of responses to each of the key review questions. These are followed by overall conclusions, and corresponding recommendations.
  484. [.pdf] GD190- Gender Equality Results in ADB Projects – Regional Synthesis of Rapid Gender Assessments in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam
    Strategy 2020 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) identified gender equity as a driver of change essential for achieving inclusive and sustainable growth, reducing poverty, and improving living standards. ADB is committed to designing gender-inclusive projects and paying careful attention to gender issues across the full range of its operations. ADB’s Gender and Development Plan of Action (ADB 2007a) aims to achieve this by strengthening the implementation of gender-related loan design features, institutionalizing the use of project-specificgender action plans (GAPs), including gender-related targets and indicators in the design and monitoring frameworks (DMFs) of all projects, and promoting compliance with gender-related loan covenants. Rapid gender assessments (RGAs) were undertaken of 12 loans in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam to assess gender equality results and progress against these organizational objectives. This report includes a summary of the GAP or gender provisions and the gender equality results achieved for each project (chapter II); an analysis of the gender equality results in each sector, and how these contributed to loan outcomes and effectiveness (chapter III); an analysis of the implementation and institutionalization of GAPs and gender provisions including their incorporation into DMFs and compliance with loan covenants (chapter IV); and conclusions and recommendations to improve the quality and institutionalization of GAPs (chapter V). Findings are compared with the first series of RGAs, conducted in 2004 and 2005 (RGA-I).
  485. [.pdf] GD191- Measuring Gender Equality Results – Paris Declaration and Other Ways
    This paper will provide early tools for making the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development aid as proposed by the PD framework and borrowing from the Results Based Management paradigm accountable for gender equality results.
  486. [.pdf] GD192- Gender equality for development Results and lessons
    This brochure shows the results of, and lessons learned from, Sweden’s efforts to promote gender equality in international development cooperation. The introduction gives a general description of the gender equality situation in Sweden’s partner countries. A presentation follows of bilateral and multilateral development cooperation, dialogue as an advocacy tool, and
    challenges and conclusions.
  487. [.pdf] GD193- Mainstreaming Gender Equality – A Road to Results or a Road to Nowhere? –  Synthetis Report 2012
    The objectives of the evaluation synthesis were to: • Examine experiences in mainstreaming gender equality across multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, and in so doing, • Highlight trends (commonalities and differences) in findings, challenges faced and good practices. The scope of the synthesis was guided by the following considerations: • Time period: From 1990 to 2010. in order to capture trends (similarities and differences) in findings and good practices from the women-in-development (WID) era to the current emphasis on gender and development (GAD); • Evaluation type: Primary emphasis was on thematic and country evaluations that had a specific focus on gender and/or women; • Stakeholder consultation and demand: The synthesis approach paper was circulated for discussion within the Bank in Spring 2010, and comments were used to focus on key issues of concern, such as good practices in mainstreaming processes.
  488. [.pdf] GD194- Accounting foy Gender Results – A Review of the Philippine GAD Budget Policy
    The evaluation looked into the four aspects of the implementation of he gender budget policy. One aspect is the performance of NEDA, NCRFW and DBM in ensuring that the GAD Budget Policy is implemented. This involved an analysis of efforts of the three oversight agencies to implement the law through the promotion of gender-responsive planning; development of tools and guidelines for development planning and advocacy; programming, monitoring and evaluation, and necessary adjustments to the guidelines in response to emerging developments; and monitoring of compliance of various agencies with the policy. A second aspect, compliance of government departments to the GAD Budget Policy, required an investigation of trends in terms of GAD budget levels, as a percentage of government department/agency budgets, number of compliant departments/agencies, and reasons for non-compliance. The third aspect is the utilization of the GAD budget. It meant looking into activities supported by the budget, and how this utilization pattern affected GAD mainstreaming
    and women. The last area involved the analysis of measures to improve compliance to and performance of the GAD Budget Policy. The interviews with officials and/or technical staff of the oversight agencies and the case studies were distilled to identify factors that induced agencies to undertake GAD planning, craft GAD budgets, and use the budgets to obtain gender equality and women’s empowerment results.
  489. [.pdf] GD195- Indicators for Measuring Results on Gender Equality
    The Swedish Policy on Gender Equality and Women´s Rights and Role in Development (2010) underlines the importance of developing context-specific qualitative and quantitative indicators for the monitoring of work on gender equality. The purpose of this document is to provide a selection of potential indicators from which Sida country teams can choose in order to monitor results in gender equality work in different sectors. This material is to be seen as a contribution to that work – not the answer to all questions about gender indicators. The list of proposed indicators can be used as inspiration while developing the Result Matrix but also with a view to having indicators that would work in partner countries’ own monitoring of results e.g. Performance Assessment Framework, monitoring of National Action Plans on gender equality etc.
    Family
  490. Family Systems, Political Systems, And Asia’s ‘Missing Girls’
    The Construction Of Son Preference And Its Unraveling
  491. Author: Monica Das Gupta
  492. Published: December 2009
  493. Pages: 34
  494. The Long-Run Impacts Of Adult Deaths On Older Household Members In Tanzania
  495. Authors: Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Beegle, Kathleen
  496. Published: September 2009
  497. Pages: 42
  498. Leveling The Intra-Household Playing Field
  499. Authors: V. Del Carpio, Ximena; Macours, Karen
  500. Published: January 2009
  501. Pages: 30
  502. Intrahousehold Inequality And Child Gender Bias In Ethiopia
  503. Author: Koohi-Kamali, Feridoon
  504. Published: November 2008
  505. Pages: 27
  506. Finance
  507. Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are women disadvantaged?
  508. Authors: Reyes Aterido; Thorsten Beck; Leonardo Iacovone
  509. Published: February 2011
  510. Pages: 51
  511. Long-Term Financial Incentives And Investment In Daughters
  512. Authors: Sinha, Nistha; Yoong, Joanne
  513. Published: March 2009
  514. Pages: 39
  515. India’s Investment Climate
    Voices of Indian Business
  516. Authors: Aurora Ferrari; Inderbir Singh Dhingra
  517. Published: November 2008
  518. Pages: 160
  519. Are Women More Credit Constrained? Experimental Evidence On Gender And Microenterprise Returns
  520. Authors: de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
  521. Published: October 2008
  522. Pages: 45
  523. The Market For Retirement Products In Sweden
  524. Author: Palmer, Edward
  525. Published: October 2008
  526. Pages: 74
  527. Gender And Asset Ownership
  528. Authors: Doss, Cheryl; Grown, Caren; Deere, Carmen Diana
  529. Published: September 2008
  530. Pages: 78
  531. Gender and Development (General)
  532. [.pdf]   GD002-Guide to Gender and Development – AusAID
    The Guide has been prepared to facilitate gender planning in AusAID development programs. It is intended to be a tool to help Activity Managers and contractors effectively implement AusAID’s Gender and Development  Policy.Other donor countries use similar lists of questions, checklists and guidelines in their programs, and these have provided the basis for developing this Guide. The checklists consulted include those for  the Canadian, Finnish and Dutch International Development Agencies in addition to those for the European Commission and INSTRAW (the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the  Advancement of Women).
  533. [.pdf]   GD003-Gender and Development – Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups
  534. Training packages produced by the CIDA-funded Canada-Nepal Gender in Organizations Project.
  535. [.pdf]   GD007-Gender and Development – Independent Evaluation Group – World Bank
  536. This book synthesizes IFPRI’s research on intrahousehold allocation since the publication of Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Models, Methods, and Policy, edited by Lawrence
    Haddad, John Hoddinott, and Harold Alderman, in 1997.
  537. [.pdf]   GD008-June Mapala Muleya – Gender and Development
  538. This research report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Gender and Peace Building.
  539. [.pdf]   GD013-World Development Report 2012 – Gender Equality and Development – World Bank
  540. This Report points to four priority areas for policy going forward. First, reducing gender gaps in human capital—specifi cally those that address female mortality and education. Second, closing gender gaps in access to  economic opportunities, earnings, and productivity. Third, shrinking gender differences in voice and agency within society. Fourth, limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations. These are all areas where  higher incomes by themselves do little to reduce gender gaps, but focused policies can have a real impact.
  541. [.pdf]   GD014-Busan Joint Action Plan for Gender Equality and Development – OECD
  542. This Plan captures commitments to gender equality, women’s empowerment and women’s rights made at the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF-4) in Busan, Republic of Korea. Our intent is to build  momentum for implementing commitments in a timely and effective manner by expressing our support and desire to participate in post-Busan activities, as appropriate and in a coordinated way, and giving due consideration  to applicable provisions of CEDAW, the Beijing Platform for Action, and other human rights instruments.
  543. [.pdf]   GD015-Gender – Report on Engendering Development – World Bank
  544. Engendering Developmenpt rovidesp olicymakersd, evelopments pecialists, and civil society members many valuable lessons and tools for integrating gender into development work. The wealth of evidence and analysis presented in the report can inform the design of effectives trategies to promote equality between women and men in development.
  545. [.pdf]   GD024-Development and Gender Equality – Consequences, Causes, Challenges and Cures – HECR
  546. This paper reviews the economic literature that touches the role of gender in the economy, with specific focus on issues that might be expected to be the most critical for overall development.
  547. [.pdf]   GD027- Gender Awareness and Development Manual – UNDP
  548. This collection of training tools and exercises has been provided so that trainers can develop workshops targeted to all staff regardless of seniority level and managerial responsibilities. The content is designed to provide staff with the necessary knowledge and tools to integrate gender issues into their work.
  549. [.pdf]   GD028-gender and development training kit- AQOCI
  550. The kit was designed for use in training trainers, both women and men, in the Gender and Development approach.The contents of this training kit were adapted from ”Un autre genre de développement,” a document  produced by the Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC), MATCH, AQOCI, in August 1991.
  551. [.pdf]   GD033- Strategies for Promoting Gender Equity in Developing Countries – Reliefweb
  552. On Thursday, April 26, 2007, the Woodrow Wilson Center convened a group of experts on gender and development to address the issue of gender inequality from a variety of perspectives. Panelists reflected on past   efforts to promote gender equity and discussed effective strategies for the way forward.
  553. [.pdf]   GD037- Gender mainstreaming in development programmes and projects
  554. This guide was produced to support the promotion of gender equality and gender mainstreaming in various development programmes and projects.The guide was drawn up on the basis of the EU’s structural fund programmes, but is suitable for everyone involved in the planning, implementation and assessment of various development programmes and projects.
  555. [.pdf]   GD040- The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity
  556. This paper is concerned with the instrumental impact of countries failing to meet theMillennium Development Goal (MDG) on gender equality. The prospect of countries failing to meet the MDG is not just a theoretical  possibility but, given our assessment of current trends, a likely outcome for some 45 countries for which data exist. The purpose of the paper is therefore to estimate to what extent these countries will suffer losses in terms of economic growth, as well as foregone reductions in fertility, child mortality, and undernutrition. Conversely, it will allow countries to assess the potential gains from adopting policies that bring them closer to meeting the goal.
  557. [.pdf]   GD041- Gender Analysis Tools – Tamarack
  558. GENDER ANALYSIS is a tool for examining the differences between the roles that women and men play, the different levels of power they hold, their differing needs, constraints and opportunities, and the impact of these  differences on their lives.
  559. [.pdf]   GD048- Gender Training Toolkit – World Vision International
  560. The aim of this Gender Training Toolkit is the systematic integration of gender equality sensitivity, awareness and analysis into World Vision ministry in every area of its work. The Gender Training Toolkit is designed as a  resource for staff with training and facilitation skills to use in the training of new trainers and local and  regional leaders.This second edition of the Gender Training Toolkit consists of eight modules, with more than 30  individual training sessions.This second edition of the Gender Training Toolkit is a resource for the World Vision Partnership, as well as for any sister agencies who may wish to adapt from these pages.
  561. [.pdf]   GD052- Gender Equality, Poverty Eradication and the Millenium Development Goals – UNESCAP
  562. This manuscript has been issued by the Emerging Social Issues Division of ESCAP. It is part of a series of publications previously known as the Women in Development Discussion Paper Series.This paper was delivered  by Professor Naila Kabeer, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, as a keynote presentation for the first session of the Committee on Emerging Social Issues, Bangkok, 4 September 2003 Figures have been supplemented by World Bank sources
  563. [.pdf]   GD053- Gender and the MDGs – Overseas Development Institute
  564. Key points of this ODI Briefing Paper: 1) Policy dialogue on the MDGs needs to recognise that the gender dynamics of power, poverty, vulnerability and care link all the goals; 2) The achievement of the MDGs requires a coordinated policy approach that is  sensitive to gender-specific discrimination and risks 3) Gender-sensitive social protection policies offer an opportunity to link gender equality and the MDGs.
  565. [.pdf]   GD054- Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in the Asia-Pacific – UNESCAP
  566. This study aims to contribute to transforming the MDGs to fulfill the aspiration of CEDAW and BPfA (Beijing Platform for Action) by developing complementary indicators based on the linkages the MDGs have with CEDAW as well as with BPfA. T  The scope of work in the study includes: 1) reviewing the progress made towards the MDGs in the ESCAP region in relation to gender equality and women’s  empowerment (Chapter II), 2) providing a rationale for linking MDGs with CEDAW and BPfA (Chapter III), 3) recommending targets and indicators that can supplement existing MDG targets and indicators for the  promotion of gender equality (Chapter IV), and searching for country good practices for aligning MDGs with BPfA and CEDAW, especially by utilizing targets, indicators and other monitoring and assessment tools  (Chapter V).
  567. [.pdf]   GD061- Gender Equality in the Post-2015 Development Agenda
  568. The Rio + 20 Conference ‘The Future We Want’ took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012. It was organized to take stock of what results have been achieved since the original United National Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), otherwise referred to as the Earth Summit, in 1992, and to address present and future challenges that are undermining sustainable development. Twenty years ago, the Earth  Summit and its outcome document, Agenda 21, fueled an optimism that led to a decade of UN conferences, including the UN Beijing Conference on Women in 1995, and world summits of the 1990’s. In 2000, governments reaffirmed their commitment to sustainable development by adopting the Millennium Declaration in 2000 and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were important indicators and benchmarks to  achieve sustainable development goals. It would be fantastic to state collectively that as a result of these efforts and others at the national and regional levels, sustainable development has moved in a positive direction.  Instead, it is widely recognized that we are very far away from where we need to be.
  569. [.pdf]   GD090- Tackling the root causes of gender inequalities in the post-2015 development agenda
  570. The OECD Development Centre’s Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), launched in 2009, was the first attempt to capture, quantify and measure some of the social institutions that discriminate against women and  girls. The 2012 SIGI scores countries on 14 variables that are grouped into five sub-indices: Discriminatory Family Code, Restricted Physical Integrity, Son Bias, Restricted Civil Liberties and Restricted Resources and  Entitlements. This paper presents the SIGI as a framework to understand and capture discriminatory social institutions as the root causes of gender inequality. Statistical association tests show that the index provides unique  information on gender inequality, in comparison to other gender indices.i Further, regression analysis shows that higher levels of underlying discrimination against women is related to poor development outcomes such as  women’s employment, education attainment and child health, even when controlling for factors such as the level of economic development and urbanisation. These findings have clear implications for the post-2015  development agenda: any new framework should take a holistic approach to measuring gender inequality and should specifically address discriminatory social institutions.
  571. [.pdf]   GD095- How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development – Cross-Country Evidence
  572. This paper assumes that gender inequality hinders economic and human development: a one standard deviation change in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) will increase long term income per capita by 9.1% and the Human Development Index (HDI) by 4%. Gender inequality may be a explanation of economic development di erences : 16% of the long term income di erence between South Asia and East Asia & Paci c can be accounted for  by the di erence in gender inequality. Moreover, this paper provides evidence of a vicious circle between gender inequality and long term income. The multi-dimensional concept of gender inequality is measured by a  composite index with endogenous weightings: the Gender Inequality Index (GII). To correct endogeneity and simultaneity problems, the two-stage and three-stage least square methods are used separately. In this way, the  steady state per capita income and the human development levels are estimated for 109 developing countries.
  573. [.pdf]   GD021-Guidelines on Gender Mainstreaming in Alternative Development – UNDCP
  574. The guidelines are based on the outcome of gender analysis and lessons learned of the Alternative Development projects visited and the workshop held in Vienna in January 2000.
  575. [.pdf]   GD150- CIDA’s Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators
  576. This Guide explains why gender-sensitive indicators are useful tools for measuring the results of CIDA’s development initiatives. It concentrates in particular on  projects with an end-user focus, and shows how gender-sensitive indicators can and should be used in both gender integrated and WID-specific projects, and in  combination with other evaluation techniques. After introducing concepts, the Guide reviews the techniques of choosing and using indicators at the project level, so  that CIDA staff can utilize them as an instrument of results-based management.
  577. [.pdf]   GD006-Household Decisions, Gender, and Development – IFPRI
  578. This book synthesizes IFPRI’s research on intrahousehold allocation since the publication of Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Models, Methods, and Policy, edited by Lawrence Haddad, John Hoddinott, and Harold Alderman, in 1997.
  579. [.pdf]   GD075- Gender Inequality and Social Development
  580. This project  examines economic theory, literature, and empirical trends with respect to gender inequality and its effect on socioeconomic development, and determine if this policy focus on gender is necessary  for successful socioeconomic development.
  581. [.pdf]   GD043- Making a difference – Gender and participatory development – Eldis
  582. The study begins by exploring some of the dimensions of “participation” and “gender” in development. It goes on to draw on examples of  “participatory” projects from Africa and Asia to analyse some of the obstacles and  opportunities for women’s participation and for addressing gender issues. Some of the most trenchant critiques of the neglect of gender issues and the silencing of women’s voices in participatory projects and policy-related work focus on the practice of Participatory Rural Apraisal (PRA) (see, for example, Moose 1995; Jackson 1996; Guijt and Kaul Shah 1998).
  583. [.pdf]   GD045- Reflections on Gender and Participatory Development – K4Health
  584. This article, I explore some of the tensions, contradictions and complementarities between ‘‘gender-aware’’ and ‘‘participatory’’ approaches to development. I suggest that making a difference may come to depend on challenging embedded assumptions about gender and power, and on making new alliances out of old divisions, in order to build more inclusive, transformatory practice.
  585. On Norms and Agency: Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries
  586. Authors: Ana María Muñoz Boudet; Patti Petesch; Carolyn Turk
  587. Published: April 2013 –
  588. Pages: 228
  589. Series: Directions in Development
  590. Opening Doors : Gender Equality and Development in the Middle East and North Africa
  591. Author: The World Bank
  592. Published: February 2013
  593. Pages: 206
  594. Series: MENA Development Report
  595. Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications
  596. Journal title: >World Bank Research Observer, volume 28, issue 1
  597. Authors: Oriana Bandiera; Ashwini Natraj
  598. Pages: 20
  599. Equality for Women
    Where Do We Stand?
  600. Editors: Mayra Buvinic; Andrew R. Morrison; Mirja Sjoblom; A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah
  601. Published: September 2008
  602. Pages: 353
  603. The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America
  604. Authors: Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Gignoux, Jeremie
  605. Published: July 2008
  606. Pages: 55
  607. Institutional Pathways to Equity
    Addressing Inequality Traps
  608. Editors: Michael Walton; Anthony J. Bebbington; Anis A. Dani; Arjan de Haan
  609. Published: April 2008
  610. Pages: 255
  611. Attitudes To Equality: The “Socialist Legacy” Revisited
  612. Authors: Murthi, Mamta; Tiongson, Erwin R.
  613. Published: February 2008
  614. Pages: 28
  615. Glossaries
  616. [.pdf]   GD010-Gender and Development Glossary – IPS Inter Press Service
  617. The production and publication of this third edition of the IPS-Inter Press Service Gender and Development Glossary was undertaken under ‘Communicating for Change’, an IPS project (2009-2011) fi nanced through the Dutch Ministry’s MDG-3 Fund: Investing in Equality.
  618. [.pdf]   GD018-Glossary of Gender and Development Terms – European Commission
  619. Toolkit on mainstreaming gender equality in EC development cooperation.
  620. [.pdf]   GD077- Glossary of Gender-related Terms – PeaceWomen
  621. This glossary aims to contribute towards a general and clearer understanding of some of the frequently used terms and concepts in relation to gender. It is addressed to policymakers, researchers, students and/or anyone  interested in such issues.
  622. Health
  623. Sunrise House – Addiction Demographics – Women
  624. Women are confronted with unique challenges regarding mental health, addiction and stigmas that often act as a barrier to receiving the treatment and help they need. While there are many unique addiction and mental health resources available for women, none of them are comprehensive and specifically tailored to addiction among women. After research across the resources available on the web, the AAC team noticed the absence of a centralized resource designed to help understand the basics of mental health, alcohol use and addiction within this demographic and offer guidance on navigating support systems. They decided to fill this gap of knowledge.This page summarizes available governmental, organizational and other resources and makes them easily accessible to those searching for assistance. It includes dozens of the latest studies and external resources for women seeking information and assistance.
  625. The Global HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)
  626. Authors: Chris Beyrer; Andrea L. Wirtz; Damian Walker; Benjamin Johns; Frangiscos Sifakis; Stefan D. Baral
  627. Published: May 2011
  628. Pages: 400
  629. Empowering women: The effect of women’s decision-making power on reproductive health services uptake: Evidence from Pakistan
  630. Authors: Xiaohui Hou; Ning Ma
  631. Published: January 2011
  632. Pages: 22
  633. A New Approach To Producing Geographic Profiles Of Hiv Prevalence
    An Application To Malawi
  634. Authors: Peter Lanjouw; Oleksiy Ivaschenko
  635. Published: February 2010
  636. Pages: 35
  637. Mental Health In The Aftermath Of Conflict
  638. Authors: Quy-Toan Do; Lakshmi Iyer
  639. Published: November 2009
  640. Pages: 28
  641. Comparing Condom Use With Different Types Of Partners
    Evidence From National HIV Surveys In Africa
  642. Authors: Damien de Walque; Rachel Kline
  643. Published: November 2009
  644. Pages: 37
  645. Demographic And Socioeconomic Patterns Of HIV/AIDS Prevalence In Africa
  646. Authors: Kathleen Beegle; Damien de Walque
  647. Published: October 2009
  648. Pages: 32
  649. Agent Orange And The Prevalence Of Cancer Among The Vietnamese Population 30 Years After The End Of The Vietnam War
  650. Author: Do, Quy-Toan
  651. Published: September 2009
  652. Pages: 30
  653. Courage and Hope
    Stories from Teachers Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
  654. Authors: Donald Bundy; David Aduda; Alice Woolnough; Lesley Drake; Stella Manda
  655. Published: August 2009
  656. Pages: 87
  657. The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape
    Selected Papers for The World Bank’s Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011
  658. Editors: Elizabeth L. Lule; Richard M. Seifman; Antonio C. David
  659. Published: June 2009
  660. Pages: 474
  661. Transactional Sex As A Response To Risk In Western Kenya
  662. Authors: Robinson, Jonathan; Yeh, Ethan
  663. Published: March 2009
  664. Pages: 44
  665. Cross-Border Purchases Of Health Services
    A Case Study On Austria And Hungary
  666. Author: Andreas J. Obermaier
  667. Published: February 2009
  668. Pages: 31
  669. HIV and AIDS in South Asia
    An Economic Development Risk
  670. Editors: Markus Haacker; Mariam Claeson
  671. Published: February 2009
  672. Pages: 244
  673. Month Of Birth And Children’s Health In India
  674. Authors: Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy
  675. Published: January 2009
  676. Pages: 40
  677. Progress In Participation In Tertiary Education In India From 1983 To 2004
  678. Authors: Azam, Mehtabul; Blom, Andreas
  679. Published: December 2008
  680. Pages: 47
  681. Can Biological Factors Like Hepatitis B Explain the Bulk of Gender Imbalance in China? A Review of the Evidence
  682. Journal title: World Bank Research Observer, volume 23, issue 2
  683. Author: Gupta, Monica Das
  684. Pages: 17
  685. HIV Pandemic, Medical Brain Drain, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
  686. Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 22, issue 2
  687. Authors: Bhargava, Alok; Docquier, Frédéric
  688. Pages: 22
  689. Use Of Modern Medical Care For Pregnancy And Childbirth Care: Does Female Schooling Matter?
  690. Author: Somanathan, Aparnaa
  691. Published: May 2008
  692. Pages: 68
  693. A Review of Health Sector Aid Financing to Somalia
  694. Author: World Bank
  695. Editors: Emanuele Capobianco; Veni Naidu
  696. Published: May 2008
  697. Pages: 50
  698. The World Bank’s Commitment to HIV/AIDS in Africa
    Our Agenda for Action, 2007-2011
  699. Author: World Bank
  700. Published: March 2008
  701. Pages: 125
  702. Does Hepatitis B Infection Or Son Preference Explain The Bulk Of Gender Imbalance In China? : A Review Of The Evidence
  703. Author: Das Gupta, Monica
  704. Published: February 2008
  705. Pages: 19
  706. The Determinants Of HIV Infection And Related Sexual Behaviors : Evidence From Lesotho
  707. Authors: Corno, Lucia; de Walque, Damien
  708. Published: December 2007
  709. Pages: 46
  710. The Africa Multi-Country AIDS Program 2000-2006 : Results of the World Bank’s Response to a Development Crisis
  711. Author: World Bank
  712. Published: May 2007
  713. Pages: 173
  714. Corporate Responses to HIV/AIDS: Case Studies from India
  715. Author: World Bank
  716. Published: June 2007
  717. Pages: 89
  718. Human Rights
  719. [.pdf]   GD069- The Integration of Gender and Human Rights into the Post-2015 Development Framework
  720. This report is based on the discussion that took place at the “Post-2015 Expert Group Meeting” held at the Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL) from December 13-14, 2012. This meeting was convened to  try to integrate issues of gender and human rights into the development of a post-2015 framework for social and economic development that is applicable to all countries. This report seeks to integrate macroeconomics,  human rights, and gender into an analytical framework. To achieve this, specific focus is given to fiveve areas of importance to the current post-2015 discourse: (i) gender equality and the realization of women’s rights; (ii)  inequality, both within and between countries; (iii) employment and the right to decent work; (iv) creation of an enabling macroeconomic environment for the realization of economic and social rights; and (v) governance for  human rights at global and national levels.
  721. [.pdf]   GD084- Gender equality and extension of women rights in Russia in the context of the Millenium Development Goals – UNDP
  722. The report aims to analyse the situation in Russia with regard to different forms of gender inequality, and to identify key policy areas towards achievement of the third Millennium Goal with account to specific Russian context, namely: 1) To identify Russian peculiarities with regard to attainment of gender equality; 2) To identify primary trends and gender inequality mechanisms in economy. 3) To analyse the impact of economic gender inequality on different status of men and women in social and political areas. 4) To propose policy guidelines towards achieving gender equality and expansion of women’s opportunities and rights.
  723. [.pdf] GD214- Integrating Human Rights and Gender Equality in Evaluation ‐ Towards UNEG Guidance
  724. The Handbook was developed by the UNEG Human Rights and Gender Equality (HR & GE) Task Force and provides guidance and options on how to integrate HR & GE dimensions in evaluation. It was developed in response to a noted gap in evaluation guidance in general and the UN system-wide mandates to integrate HR & GE in all areas of work, including evaluation. By doing so, the UN system will be better able to learn lessons, hold key stakeholders accountable for results, and in turn improve policies and programming, which will contribute to the realization of HR & GE and meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other UN mandates. 3. This Handbook integrates guidance on the two concepts of “human rights” and “gender equality” to take advantage of the synergies and overlap between these mutually reinforcing concepts, including the understanding that gender equality is both a human right, but also a dimension of development in its own right. Also, human rights are inclusive of, but not limited to, gender related human rights.
  725. [.pdf] GD215- Human rights and gender equality in health sector strategies – how to assess policy coherence
  726. Human Rights and Gender Equality in Health Sector Strategies: how to assess policy coherence is designed to support countries as they design and implement national health sector
    strategies in compliance with obligations and commitments. The tool focuses on practical options and poses critical questions for policy-makers to identify gaps and opportunities in the review or reform of health sector strategies as well as other sectoral initiatives. It is expected that using this tool will generate a national multi-stakeholder process and a cross-disciplinary dialogue to address human rights and gender equality in health sector activities. The tool is intended for use by various actors involved in health planning and policy making, implementation or monitoring of health sector strategies. These include (but are not limited to) ministries of health and other sectors, national human rights institutions, development partners and civil society organizations. The tool provides support, as opposed to a set of detailed guidelines, to assess health sector strategies. It is not a manual on human rights or gender equality, but it does provide users with references to other publications and materials of a more conceptual and normative nature. The tool aims to operationalize a human rights-based approach and gender mainstreaming through their practical application in policy assessments.
  727. [.pdf] GD216- Gender, the Millennium Development Goals, and Human
  728. The year 2005 is a strategic window for women’s human rights advocacy because in this year the Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA) and the Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will be reviewed. This paper offers the GAD Network a way to think about the opportunities offered by these coinciding reviews and outlines an advocacy agenda for participation in the reviews at an international level. This paper argues that achievement of the MDGs is both an indication of and a necessity for the realization of human rights, because the MDGs correspond to states’ existing human rights obligations found in the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Setting the MDGs back within a human rights framework provides analytical and practical tools towards challenging the prevailing neo-liberal, economic growth-driven model of development.
  729. [.pdf] GD217- The Gender Dimension of Human Rights A Development Perspective
  730. In today’s world, institutions at the national, regional, and international level work together to ensure that human rights are respected. International human rights organizations make independent assessments of human rights conditions and national courts and regional organizations use international human rights treaties to guide their own decision-making. I will discuss how the Inter-American System fits in this interlocking domestic, regional, and international framework. The regional system’s goals are similar to those of the international system. It provides a mechanism to address the particular problems faced by the states of the region. It provides more actual remedies for victims of violations of human rights norms than the international system, through adjudication of individual claims, the issuance of advisory opinions, and the use of in loco visits.
  731. [.pdf] GD218- Human Rights Advocacy on Gender Issues – Challenges and Opportunities
  732. Recent years have seen notable progress on issues of gender and human rights in standard-setting and to some extent application of those standards through international and domestic legislation and jurisprudence, and in institutional programming and development. Some international and regional human rights bodies now go beyond just including ‘women’ in a list of ‘vulnerable’ groups, and have begun to incorporate women’s experiences and perspectives into recommendations for structural changes needed to bring about full enjoyment of human rights by women and girls. In addition, recent years have seen the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people being taken up beyond the first human rights bodies that addressed them, and developments have taken place in standard-setting. Despite this progress, many challenges remain. Violence against women continues at a staggering rate. Gender-based discrimination persists in the workplace, housing, education, disaster relief, health care, and countless other areas. Access to justice continues to be hindered by a range of obstacles. Religion, tradition, and culture continue to be used as a shield for violating women’s rights. Same-sex conduct is still criminalized in scores of countries, and it carries the death penalty in seven states. The traditional human rights law paradigm, with its focus on the state, may be obsolete in dealing with human rights abuses by such diverse non-state actors as powerful militias and global corporations. This article highlights just a few opportunities and challenges to come for international human rights advocacy on gender issues.
  733. [.pdf] GD220- Gender and International Human Rigts Law
  734. International developments gave rise to a corresponding emphasis on women’s rights at the regional level. In 1998, the Organisation of African States (now the African Union) appointed a Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women to give special attention to women’s rights in Africa. In 2003, after years of discussion and preparation, the African Union adopted a Protocol to the African Charter for Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has followed suit, with the adoption of a Declaration of Gender and Development in 1997, supplemented in 1998 by an Addendum on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and Children. The SADC documents are not legally binding, however. SADC has also established a series of structures to facilitate the mainstreaming of gender into regional and national policies. One specific gender issue which has been received special emphasis at the international and regional level is violence against women. This topic is singled out for attention here because it is one of Namibia’s foremost human rights problems. Knowledge of relevant international and regional agreements on gender is important in Namibia, because (as explained in more detail below) the Namibian Constitution gives them the force of law in Namibia once the government has agreed to them. The remainder of this booklet will looks at these developments in more detail. The booklet does not cover every international agreement relevant to gender, but rather focuses on key agreements. The texts of these key international agreements and other official documents are printed on coloured paper for easier reference.
  735. [.pdf] GD221- Integrating a Human Rights-Based and Gender Equality Approach into National Strategic Plans on HIV – Workshop Report
  736. In the effort to support countries to scale up and integrate interventions and programs on human rights and gender equality, UNAIDS initiated a project aiming at supporting 30 countries in three regions that are developing new or reviewing current national HIV strategic plans in 2011. Its aim was to comprehensively integrate key legal and human rights national strategic plans. The Project for the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) Region was expanded to include the integration of gender equality and a focus on prevention. The expected outcome of this initiative was to achieve the meaningful inclusion of human rights and gender equality in the situational and response analyses, programmatic activities, budgets, and monitoring frameworks of NSPs.The ESA Workshop was held in Johannesburg from the 20th to the 23rd September.
  737. [.pdf] GD225- Towards the Realization of Women’s Rights and Gender Equality Post 2015 Sustainable Development-1
  738. This summary report is the culmination of a two-day strategic meeting, “Towards the Realization of Women’s Rights and Gender Equality: Post 2015 Sustainable Development,” which took place in Florham Park, New Jersey from June 11-12, 2013. The meeting was organized to identify, analyze, and strategize about the linkages between the realization of women’s rights and gender equality and macroeconomic policy within the context of the post 2015 sustainable development framework and processes. The Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL), with the support of the Ford Foundation, convened women’s rights advocates, economic and social rights experts, and human rights lawyers working from a feminist perspective. The consultations were guided by the following objectives: to (i) identify priorities for the realization of women’s rights and gender equality within the context of macroeconomic policy; (ii) select and develop key messages for selected priorities; (iii) brainstorm strategies for selected priorities; and (vi) discuss next steps. This summary report intends to highlight key points from the meeting and share strategies for moving forward.
  739. [.pdf] GD226- ABC of women workers’ rights and gender equality
  740. The ILO considers it extremely important to increase knowledge of the legal aspects of gender equality in the world of work. While legal instruments for promoting gender equality and protecting women workers’ rights are steadily expanding in number and being improved at both national and international levels, there is still a gap between the rights set out in national and international standards and their implementation in real situations. Even the best legal provisions cannot be of much use if they are not known and not put into practice. People need knowledge about legal rights and the machinery to enforce them if they are to combat discrimination and fight for a fair balance of opportunity, treatment, pay and representation between men and women in all areas of paid and unpaid employment and in work-related decision-making. However, many workers around the world are only hazily aware or even unaware of their rights, and this is perhaps the greatest obstacle to their exercising those rights. This practical guide is intended to bridge that knowledge gap. Arranged alphabetically by topic, it focuses primarily on States’ and employers’ obligations and workers’ rights as regards equality between men and women, enshrined in the ILO’s body of international labour standards (Conventions and Recommendations). It also refers to other relevant developments and trends in international law (for example, United Nations instruments), supranational law (for instance, European Community directives), and national legislation and practice. In addition, the guide includes explanations of a number of political, legal and socio-economic terms in common use and especially relevant to women workers and gender equality.
  741. [.pdf] GD228- Women’s Rights & Gender Equality, the New Aid Environment and Civil Society Organisations
  742. The report highlights some of the key questions emerging for civil society around the way the new aid systems promote, marginalise or exclude gender equality and women’s rights issues, as well as developing themes for future targeted research. The report reflects the voices of organisations working for gender equality and women’s rights from around the world. It conveys the diversity and complexity of the issues around the new aid modalities and how these differ across countries and continents; it also shows some of the unintended consequences of new aid modalities. Above all, it reveals that many women’s organisations and those focused on challenging gender inequality feel threatened as the focus of funding moves in the direction of larger grants, tighter, short term targets, demonstrable and ‘scaled up’ results, and intensive administration.
  743. [.pdf] GD229- Gender equality, women’s rights and access to energy services An inspiration paper in the run – up to Rio+20
  744. This study aims to increase international attention on the gender equality dimensions of energy access in the run-up to Rio+20 and contribute to the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative and its goal of ensuring universal access to modern energy services by 2030. It conceptualizes gender and energy in development from a gender and rights perspective and presents an analysis of energy system governance at household, national and global levels. The study primarily focuses on experience emerging from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, given the severity of energy poverty in those regions.
  745. [.pdf] GD230- Gender Equality and Aid Effectiveness – The mobilisation of gender equality and women’s rights organisations towards Accra
  746. In the process of building the aid effectiveness agenda, a huge effort was made to collectively build a strong coalition of women’s rights organisations, which could be a vocal advocate in the process and make the voices of women, stand out as part of the broader coalition among civil society organisations. This objective was definitely achieved. The alliance between WIDE, AWID, DAWN, FEMNET, IGTN, NETRIGHT and WILDAF was strong and fruitful, as was the support of gender advocates from the bilateral and multilateral agencies and UNIFEM.This publication aims to document this crucial and key alliance among women’s rights organisations around the aid effectiveness agenda by analysing the different processes and actions that took place, the strengths and weaknesses found during the process, as well as providing lessons for the challenges of the future. There is still so much work to do together to place gender equality and women’s rights at the centre of the new global economic and development architecture, and we hope this publication is useful for all women’s rights organisations and gender equality advocates committed to this goal.
  747. Statistics on Discrimination of Women – Human Rights
    Blog
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  748. [.pdf]   GD072- Gender Issues in ICT Policy in Developing Countries
  749. Engendering ICT policy is an area of great importance, perhaps the most important in securing the benefits of the information age for girls and women. If gender issues are not articulated in ICT policy, it is unlikely that girls  and women will reap the benefits of the information age. Decades of experience have shown that without explicit attention to gender in policy, gender issues are not considered in implementation. Despite the views of many  government policy makers that a well thought out general policy benefits all, there is no such thing as a genderblind or gender-neutral ICT policy.1 Governments also say that the fact that they already have a gender equality  policy obviates the need to spell out gender issues in every sectoral policy. On the contrary, there is much evidence to show that “policy-making in technological fields often ignores the needs, requirements, and aspirations  of women unless gender analysis is included” (Marcelle 2000, 39). Without specific attention and action, the benefits do not accrue equitably to men and women, and it is inevitably women who are left
    out.
  750. [.pdf]   GD082- Mobile Technology, Gender and Development in Africa, India and Bangladesh
  751. One of the most serious and far-reaching barriers to the eradication of poverty is gender inequality. Increased gender inequalities, even in the short-run, are having long-term consequences for economic growth and human  development (Costa & Silva 2008, 9). Thus it is not surprising that one of the key target objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment. Mobile-based  services and systems can be a partial solution to poverty alleviation.
  752. [.pdf]   GD089- Digital gender divide or technologically empowered women in developing countries
  753. The discussion about women’s access to and use of digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing countries has been inconclusive so far. Some claim that women are rather technophobic and  that men are much better users of digital tools, while others argue that women enthusiastically embrace digital communication. This article puts this question to an empirical test. It analyzes data sets from 12 Latin American  and 13 African countries from 2005-08.
  754. Information and Communication Technologies for Women’s Socio-Economic Empowerment
  755. Authors: Samia Melhem; Claudia Morell; Nidhi Tandon
  756. Published: October 2009
  757. Pages: 86
  758. Legal
  759. How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development ?
  760. Author: Varun Gauri
  761. Published: November 2009
  762. Pages: 29
  763. Public Interest Litigation In India
    Overreaching Or Underachieving ?
  764. Author: Varun Gauri
  765. Published: November 2009
  766. Pages: 25
  767. Exiting A Lawless State
  768. Authors: Hoff, Karla; Stiglitz, Joseph E.
  769. Published: February 2008
  770. Pages: 38
  771. Judiciary-Led Reforms in Singapore: “Framework, Strategies, and Lessons”
  772. Author: Waleed Haider Malik
  773. Published: February 2007
  774. Pages: 115
  775. Marriage
  776. The Association Between Remarriage And HIV Infection
    Evidence From National HIV Surveys In Africa
  777. Authors: Damien de Walque; Rachel Kline
  778. Published: November 2009
  779. Pages: 26
  780. Adult Mortality And Children’s Transition Into Marriage
  781. Authors: Beegle, Kathleen; Krutikova, Sofya
  782. Published: February 2007
  783. Pages: 21
  784. Watta Satta : Bride Exchange And Women’s Welfare In Rural Pakistan
  785. Authors: Jacoby, Hanan G.; Mansuri, Ghazala
  786. Published: February 2007
  787. Pages: 24
  788. Men and Boys
  789. [.pdf]   GD023-Engaging men in women’s issues – Women for Women International
  790. This issue of Critical Half (bi-annual journal of Women for Women International) explores how men can be engaged to support and promote women’s rights and thus help to establish gender equitable societies. The topics covered include men’s perceptions of gender roles; men’s opinions of “women’s empowerment”; factors and incentives that influence men’s receptiveness to social, political, and economic programs for women;  obstacles faced by men who wish to implement change in their communities; and proven strategies to create partnerships with men to positively transform gender relations.
  791. [.pdf]   GD068- Role of Men and Boys in Promoting Gender Equality – APPEAL
  792. While the concept of gender equality is not new, what is relatively new is the concerted effort to revisit men’s roles and identities in order to significantly increase men’s involvement in working towards gender-equal  societies. This policy brief aims to present key rationales, identify principal challenges, and recommend actionable strategies for engaging boys and men3 in efforts to achieve gender equality. The goal of this brief is to  provide policy makers, gender-related practitioners, business people and civil society leaders with a framework for developing strategies, implementing programmes, and evaluating progress in gender equality efforts that  engage men in all spheres of life.
  793. Migrations
  794. Impacts of international migration and remittances on child outcomes and labor supply in Indonesia: How does gender matter?
  795. Authors: Trang Nguyen; Ririn Purnamasari
  796. Published: March 2011
  797. Pages: 37
  798. International Migration, Transfers Of Norms And Home Country Fertility
  799. Authors: Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Schiff, Maurice
  800. Published: May 2009
  801. Pages: 44
  802. Type: Working paper
  803. Number: 4925
  804. International Migration And Gender Differentials In The Home Labor Market
  805. Authors: Mendola, Mariapia; Carletto, Gero
  806. Published: May 2009
  807. Pages: 39
  808. Migration And Economic Mobility In Tanzania
  809. Authors: Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Dercon, Stefan
  810. Published: December 2008
  811. Pages: 52
  812. The Malaysia-Indonesia Remittance Corridor
    Making Formal Transfers the Best Option for Women and Undocumented Migrants
  813. Authors: Raul Hernandez-Coss; Gillian Brown; Chitrawati Buchori; Isaku Endo; Emiko Todoroki; Tita Naovalitha; Wameek Noor; Cynthia Mar
  814. Published: June 2008
  815. Pages: 97
  816. Determinants Of Remittances: Recent Evidence Using Data On Internal Migrants In Vietnam
  817. Authors: Niimi, Yoko; Pham, Thai Hung; Reilly, Barry
  818. Published: April 2008
  819. Pages: 38
  820. The International Migration of Women
  821. Author: World Bank
  822. Editors: Maurice Schiff; Andrew R. Morrison; Mirja Sjoblom
  823. Published: November 2007
  824. Pages: 219
  825. Self-Selection Patterns In Mexico-U.S. Migration : The Role Of Migration Networks
  826. Authors: McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel
  827. Published: January 2007
  828. Pages: 28
  829. Policy
  830. [.pdf]   GD019-Gender Manual – A Practical Guide for Development Policy Makers and Pratictioners – DFID
  831. This gender manual is designed to help non-gender specialists in recognising and addressing gender issues in their work. The intention is to demystify gender, make the concept and practice of gender “mainstreaming”  accessible to a wide audience, and clarify when to call in specialist help. Whilst designed for DFID staff and partner organisations, the manual should provide useful information and guidance for staff from any government  or civil society.
  832. [.pdf]   GD022-Topic Guide on Gender
  833. This guide introduces some of the best recent literature on a range of gender issues and highlights major critical debates. It is intended primarily as a reference for policymakers and highlights practical guidance, lessons  learned and case studies. New publications and emerging issues will be regularly incorporated.
  834. [.pdf]   GD011-Protocol on Gender and Development (2008) – SADC
  835. A protocol signed by countries of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)
  836. .pdf]   GD051- Gender equality and empowerment of women – Austrian Development Cooperation
  837. The gender policy of Austrian Development Cooperation (ADC) concentrates on the core areas of capabilities, opportunities and personal security in support of the main objectives of poverty reduction, peacekeeping and  conflict prevention. This approach is implemented throughout all ADC programmes. It commits ADC in both bilateral and multilateral organisations and also in dialogue with NGOs to adopt a consistent position and to  significantly enhance the development of capacities as part of a gender policy.A policy designed to achieve gender equality and empowerment of women requires a considerable effort, in which ADC would like to be  involved. This paper provides a conceptual and strategic basis for this involvement.
  838. [.pdf]   GD083- Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy – USAID
  839. The goal of this USAID’s policy is to improve the lives of citizens around the world by advancing equality between females and males, and empowering women and girls to participate fully in and benefit from the development of their societies. It will be addressed through integration of gender equality and female empowerment throughout the Agency’s Program Cycle and related processes: in strategic planning,  project design and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. This integrated approach positions the Agency to address gender gaps and the constraints that hold women back.
  840. [.pdf]   GD093- Plan of Action for Gender-sensitive Parliaments – Inter-Parliamentary Union
  841. This Plan of Action is designed to support parliaments in their efforts to become more gender-sensitive. It presents a broad range of strategies in seven action areas that can be implemented by all parliaments, irrespective of  the number of women members. Parliaments are called upon to take ownership of this Plan of Action and to implement any or all of the Plan’s strategies at the national level by setting concrete objectives, actions and  deadlines suited to their national context. They are also called upon to regularly monitor and evaluate their progress towards the goal of gender sensitivity. A gender-sensitive parliament responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, operations, methods and work.
  842. [.pdf]   GD094- Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Issues in Development – SIDA
  843. This report is the outcome of a study of Swedish policy and administration of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) issues (including intersex issues) in international development cooperation. Findings showed that the level of knowledge and understanding among Sida and Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) staff on LGBT and intersex issues is uneven and in many cases inadequate. The same is true when it comes to awareness  of the linkages between gender identity, sexuality on the one hand, and on the other hand core development issues such as poverty reduction, the protection and exercise of human rights and combating gender-based  violence. The study shows that there is a lack of explicit mentioning of LGBT issues in Swedish policy and strategy documents, and that in programmes with Swedish support, LGBT issues are not dealt with in a consistent  manner, or at all. On policy level the exception is the Swedish Government Communication on Human Rights in Foreign Policy, where LGBT issues are dealt with as a minority rights issue alongside with indigenous people’s rights and rights of persons with disabilities. Intersex issues are not mentioned in any official documents. There are no directives to ensure that Swedish supported interventions do not advocate in favour of, or tolerate, LGBT discrimination.
  844. Against Wind and Tides – A Review of the Status of Women and Gender Equality in the Arab Region
    Linkhttps://www.unescwa.org/publications/Women-Gender-Equality-Arab-Region
  845. Twenty years after the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action on gender equality and women’s empowerment, this review of its implementation could not be more timely. Although much has been achieved in recent years to advance the rights of women and girls in the Arab region, inequalities persist at many levels, often perpetuated by law. In some countries, conflict has set back progress made and threatens the very security of women and girls. Moreover, the region has failed to put into effect one of the basic principles of the Beijing Platform: the full and equal participation of women in decision-making.This study, it is hoped, will encourage Governments and other concerned parties to redouble their commitment to the vision of the Beijing Declaration. It provides a sound foundation on which to build future development and gender equality strategies.