Agricultural & Rural Development

Agricultural & Rural Development
Resource within  the UN Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO) information base
Resources within the CGIAR website & Library .CGIAR stands for Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
Resources within IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute)


[.pdf]   GD109- Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook (791 pages)

The Sourcebook is the outcome of joint planning, continued interest in gender and agriculture, and concerted efforts by theWorld Bank, FAO, and IFAD. The purpose of the Sourcebook is to act as a guide for practitioners and  technical staff in addressing gender issues and integrating gender-responsive actions in the design and implementation of agricultural projects and programs. It speaks not with gender specialists on how to improve their skills but  rather reaches out to technical experts to guide them in thinking through how to integrate gender dimensions into their operations. The Sourcebook aims to deliver practical advice, guidelines,  principles, and descriptions and  illustrations of approaches that have worked so far to achieve the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agricultural operations of development agencies. It captures and expands the  main messages of theWorld  Development  Report 2008: Agriculture for Development and is considered an important tool to facilitate the operationalization and implementation of the report’s key principles on gender equality and women’s empowerment. The Sourcebook focuses on agricultural livelihoods, with agriculture defined broadly as “agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock, land and water, agro-industries, and environment,” following the FAO definition.


[.pdf]  GD102- A tool for gender-sensitive agriculture

The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.
[.pdf]  GD104- Integrating gender issues in food security and rural development

The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.
[.pdf]  GD105- Policy Highlights – Gender in Agricultural Development Policies

Gender refers to the social roles and relations between women and men. This includes the different responsibilities of both in a given culture or location. Unlike the sex of men or women, which is biologically determined, gender  roles are socially constructed, and can change over time and vary according to geographic location. Social justice and fairness are arguments often advanced in support of gender considerations in development. In fact documented  evidence around the world (Box 1) shows that gender equity is positively linked to increased efficiency and better prospects for economic growth. It is now clear that biases

against women hinder agricultural development and  reduce  the nutritional status of rural households. Women play a central role in agricultural production and marketing, hence in maintaining food security at household, community and national levels. The rationale for emphasising  gender in agricultural policies and strategies is as much one of economic efficiency as social equity.


[.pdf]  GD106- The role of gender in agricultural development

What factors contributed to adoption of a gender perspective
among those centers that have done so successfully? Why have the other IARCs found it difficult to deal with gender issues? What next steps should be taken by the CGIAR system to ensure system-wide attention to gender? Guided by these questions this paper addresses five areas. It begins with an overview of the rationale for including gender issues in agricultural research and development, then summarizes the existing gender issues  recommendations made to the CGIAR system. A synthesis of the discussion and recommendations made on differential user groups and gender issues at the 1987 ICW is included. The next section highlights innovative  strategies   and approaches taken by some centers to deal with certain gender issues. This is followed by an analysis of the reasons for the difficulties within the IARC community of incorporating gender-sensitive research and  development. Based on this analysis, and drawing upon the successful experiences from within the CGIAR system, the final section outlines next steps and alternative strategies to assist the CGIAR system in achieving a better  gender balance in the methods and operation of its research program.


[.pdf]  GD107- Gender Knowledge Note – Agriculture

The NZ Aid Programme’s Gender Equality Knowledge Notes aim to increase knowledge and understanding of gender equality and women’s empowerment. This Knowledge Note encourages a structural analysis of gender issues, reflected in the headings in the table on page 4: Women’s economic empowerment (economic), women’s participation in decision-making (political), risks and security, and basic needs and strategic interests.


[.pdf]  GD108- Transforming agricultural development and production in Africa

Results of a joint programme of the Salzburg Global Seminar and the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development 13-17 November 2011. Participants were a diverse mix, including representatives of rural women’s  groups and farmers’ organizations, private-sector leaders and investors, government officials, and donor and multilateral institutions. They met to examine the landscape of current activity, to explore shared goals and to develop  innovative ways to collaborate and take common action. This Salzburg meeting was timely, given that recent reports by IFAD, the World Bank and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) clearly show that empowering rural women increases agricultural production and food security in Africa. With these findings in mind, the participants focused on identifying successful interventions that could be further developed and devising mechanisms that could be used to close persistent gender gaps in policy and practice, such as differential access to financial tools, productive resources, and leadership and decision-making.


[.pdf]  GD110- ToolKit-for-Gender-and-Agriculture

Despite increased awareness, well-documented research findings and the availability of more information on women’s roles in agriculture at the country level, gender is not yet mainstreamed in the agriculture-related work of the  World Bank and its borrower countries. In fact, women’s pivotal role is still not sufficiently reflected in the design of agricultural programs and projects. One reason is that practitioners often lack the tools and know-how for integrating gender perspectives in their work. The present toolkit on gender issues in the agriculture sector is designed to partly fulfill this need. The toolkit is part of a series of toolkits being designed as tools for assisting task managers in improving project performance by incorporating gender into their work. It comprises ready-to-use material designed expressly for World Bank task managers working in the agriculture and natural resources management sector. It presents a range of tools for gender analysis and practical “how-to” strategies, collected from program and project experience from around the world.


[.pdf]  GD111- Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains

“Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook” is based on research studies and training programs conducted under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) Project. Over the life of  the project, GATE worked with seven USAID Missions (Albania, Bangladesh, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, and South Africa) to better integrate gender considerations into economic growth and trade-related programs  to expand areas of opportunity and mitigate the adverse effects of economic and trade expansion for poor women and men. Building on the growing body of empirical evidence that addressing gender issues in value chains can improve program outcomes, this Handbook presents a practical process for practitioners on how gender issues can inform the  design, implementation, and monitoring of USAID value chain programs. Influenced by some of the leading USAID value chain development approaches, the Handbook provides a methodology for analyzing how gender issues  constrain or support the ability of these programs to achieve their goals.


[.pdf]  GD112- Gender Aware Approaches in Agricultural Programme – A Study of Sida-supported Agricultural Programmes

The overall objective of this thematic evaluation is to ‘increase understanding of how development assistance in agriculture should be designed, implemented and funded to ensure that female farmers are reached, that their needs as  producers are met, and that they are able to benefit from the support to achieve a positive impact on their livelihoods


[.pdf]  GD113- Gender and agricultural innovation – Revisiting the debate through an innovation system perspective

This paper is an attempt to bring together two major streams of debate and policy analysis, which could make a major contribution to equitable development. The first concerns gender issues and how they relate to achieving both equity and efficiency goals. The second concerns innovation in agriculture and the way planning and policy is starting to view this as a multidimensional process driven by capacities distributed through society. This paper is being written in the context of a programme — the DFID-funded Research Into Use programme — that is exploring how research can be used for innovation and impact. The purpose of the paper is to reflect on the opportunities that  a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues and to provide some insight on what RIU might expect to achieve in this regard. The paper concludes with a call for two major shifts in practice and  analysis: (1) A shift from gender analysis to gender learning and (2) A shift from women’s empowerment to empowering innovation system capacity.


[.pdf]  GD114- Gender and Institutional Dimensions of Agricultural Technology Adoption

This paper reviews and integrates findings from existing empirical studies and case studies received from 35 organizations in various countries to identify demand- and supply-side constraints and opportunities in access, adoption  and impact of technological innovations. This review consistently finds that women have much slower observed rates of adoption of a wide range of technologies than men; and these are mainly due to differentiated access to  complementary inputs and services. There are limited studies that looked at upstream stages including priority-setting and innovation processes, in which women continue to be underrepresented.
[.pdf]  GD065- Gender Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture – World Bank

This toolkit has been developed to assist project task teams, borrowers, and partners to recognize and address gender concerns in designing rural development projects and to monitor and evaluate results, outcomes, and  impact on achieving overall rural well-being. To further this, the Agriculture Action Plan 2013–2015 (World Bank, 2012b) aims to include genderrelated analysis in 100% of its projects and gender-related actions and  M&E in 75% of its projects (Note C).


[.pdf]  GD097- Gender, Assets and Agricultural Development Programs

Being able to access, control, and own productive assets such as land, labor, finance, and social capital enables people to create stable and productive lives. Yet relatively little is known about how agricultural development programs can most effectively deliver these outcomes of well-being, empowerment, and higher income in a way that acknowledges differential access to and control over assets by men and women. After reviewing the literature on gender and assets, this paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding the gendered pathways through which asset accumulation occurs, including attention to not only men’s and women’s assets but also those they share in joint control and ownership.


[.pdf]   GD115- Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD

The Young Professionals’ Platform in Agricultural Research for Development (YPARD ) wishes to contribute to the debate on change in formal higher agricultural education with the views of young professionals and has hired two  consultants to carry out a study entitled “Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD”. The views of young professionals have not previously been included in discussions on curricula development. This is the  niche of this study. The study activities includes a brief literature review; a questionnaire targeting primarily young professionals to get their views; an analysis of results and comparison with information available in the literature; a  gathering of comments directly from young professionals in the form of short stories and finally preparing this report including a Key Message Brief aiming at emphasising key elements emerging from this study and upon which  YPARD could build in follow up actions.


[.pdf]   GD078- Gender and Rural Development – GIZ

Gender equality is clearly recognized as a human right on an international level. Over the past several years, UN member states have entered into a number of commitments. The Rome Declaration on Food Security,  resulting from  the FAO World Food Summit in 1996, affirms the obligation to promote the equal rights and duties of men and women regarding food security. The Millennium Development Goals underline the fact that,  without gender equality, it will be impossible to reduce by half the number of people who suffer from hunger by 2015. With its Development Policy Action Plan on Gender 2009 – 2012, the German Federal Ministry for  Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has committed to the economic empowerment of women and, in particular, to highlighting the need for genderspecific answers to the negative impact of  climate change  on agriculture.


Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship

Authors: Bob Rijkers; Rita Costa

Published: May 2012

Pages: 68


Time Allocation in Rural Households: The Indirect Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Author: Amer Hasan

Published: March 2010

Pages: 47


Gender and Governance in Rural Services

Author: World Bank

Published: January 2010

Pages: 332


Left Behind To Farm ? Women’s Labor Re-Allocation In Rural China

Authors: Ren Mu; Dominique van de Walle

Published: October 2009

Pages: 51


Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

Authors: World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

Published: October 2008

Pages: 765