Concepts and Theory

.pdf]   GD001-Gender and Development Concepts and Definitions – Bridge

Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) for its gender mainstreaming intranet resource. Selected concepts central to Gender and Development thinking are explained here. These are intended to help you explore some of the key ideas and issues in Gender and Development and their implications for policy and practice.

[.pdf]   GD005-A Conceptual Framework for Gender and Development Studies

This study intends to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework regarding the role and status of women in the development process. As such, it is based on different approaches which have been observed in the  ‘women and development’ discourse from the 1950s onwards. These approaches are: welfare; women in development (WID); gender and development (GAD); and empowerment.

[.pdf]   GD026- Men Masculinty and gender development

This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on  exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity.

[.pdf]   GD044- Gender, ethnicity, development, and risk – University of Minnesota

At its core, the mentoring movement tries to foster relationships that promote positive developmental trajectories in protégés and, potentially, in mentors as well. Mentoring relationships are shaped by the unique qualities  each partner contributes to the dyad. In order for the matches made by formal mentoring programs to succeed, they need to increase the likelihood that this idiosyncratic melding of needs and resources will occur. To do  so, they need to specify the needs or goals to be met and understand the processes through which the program and the relationship will work. This article focuses on three areas of individual difference that have implications for the design and implementation of programs: (1) gender; (2) race, ethnicity, and culture; and (3) development.

[.pdf]   GD049- Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development

The module is concerned with the integration and recognition of women and their inclusion as decision-makers indevelopment planning and policy-making, as well as other development activities: it also celebrates women’s  contributions to social, economic, and political development. The collaborative process was complicated, but rewarding. Although individuals or small teams authored specific chapters, feedback from the various writing
teams enriched and enlarged everyone’s writing and thinking.

[.pdf]   GD060- Gender – biological theory

How do biopsychologists explain gender development? How have biological psychologists studied gender development?

[.pdf]   GD062- Gender inequality in human development – theories and measurement

inequalities in the opportunities and predicaments of women and men. Although this perspective has received some attention in past Reports, there is a strong case at this time for concentrating specifically on that issue for a  more comprehensive investigation of gender inequality in economic and social arrangements in the contemporary world. In performing this task, there is need for fresh economic and social analyses as well as careful and  probing empirical research. Women and men share many aspects of living together, collaborate with each other in complex and ubiquitous ways, and yet end up — often enough — with very different rewards and deprivations. This note is specifically concerned with developing a framework for “gender-equity-sensitive indicators” of achievements and freedoms. The methodology for this is explored in the sections that follow, ending  with specific recommendations to be put into practice.

[.pdf]   GD088- Gender, ethics and empowerment – Dilemmas of development fieldwork

For students and academics involved with development studies, fieldwork is often a critical  aspect of the research process. This process, however, can give rise to a plethora of ethical dilemmas relating to power gradients  between the researcher and the researched. Combined with this are complex issues of knowledge generation, ownership and exploitation. The sensitivity of these issues may be intensified when involving women as research  participants. Ethical issues regarding the validity and effectiveness of cross-cultural and cross-gendered fieldwork in Third World contexts are explored in this article, with examples drawn from recent research  practice. Following this review is a critical discussion concerning whether there is potential for the fieldwork process to be empowering for research participants.

[.pdf]   GD099- Development, Gender , Gender and Crime

Routine activities approach has gained considerable popularity in explaining crime rates. Its explanations are offered, however, without considering the approach’s theoretical scope. Recent research suggests that the  explanatory power of the perspective might differ across level of economic development and men’s and women’s arrest rates. To address the issue of theoretical applicability, separate regression equations are estimated for the scope conditions of development and gender, using cross-national time-series analyses. The findings suggest that the explanatory power differs when the scope conditions of development and gender are applied. The routine activities approach appears to explain minor theft arrest rates most accurately for men in developed nations. In less developed nations, none of the four routine activities indicators showed a relationship with men’s theft arrest rates. Two indicators, motivation and guardianship, evidenced a relationship with women’s minor theft rates. The implications for the generalizability of the routine activities concepts across development and gender are discussed.

[.pdf]   GD100- Gender Differences in Identity and Intimacy Development

The relationship between gender, identity and intimacy was studied in a sample of 301 collegeaged students. Previous research demonstrated that male psychosocial development corresponds with Erik Erikson’s theory,  where identity development influences intimacy development. Additional research based on Carol Gilligan’s ideas suggested that identity and intimacy development may be fused in females. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires pertaining to the concepts of identity and intimacy at two different points in time. Data were tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and cross-lag analyses. Results indicated that intimacy was a predictor of identity in males. There were no significant correlations found between identity and intimacy in females. Further examination is needed to determine whether the results are due to sampling error  or simply a cultural shift in psychosocial personality development.

[.pdf]   GD101- Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation
Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people’s daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender-role development and  functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct  throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad  network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a  fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of  influence.