GD035- The Gender Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index

Produced by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI), the Gender-GEDI is the world’s first diagnostic tool that comprehensively identifies and analyzes the conditions that foster high potential female entrepreneurship development. This initial 17-country pilot study provides key insights across several regions and levels of national economic development. Female entrepreneurship at large includes a vast array of activities – ranging from petty market traders and shopkeepers to biochemical company start-ups.

[.pdf] GD196- Skills and entrepreneurship – Bridging the technology and gender divide

Technology, particularly the information and communication technology, is viewed as a potent force in transforming social, economic and political life across the globe. In many instances, the continuous development and application of technology has created vast new economic and employment opportunities. Most developing countries are harnessing the use of technology to accelerate their development processes. With an estimated 500 million people entering the global workforce over the next decade, coming to grips with the technological challenge is crucial. Without being “plugged in”, millions of women and men risk being left behind. Since women represent a significant majority of those who do not have access, there is a clear gender dimension to the technological divide. Therefore the technology divide is multifold.

[.pdf] GD197- A Comparative Study on Gender and Entrepreneurship Development – Still a Male’s World within UAE cultural Context

The study probes the issue of gender equality regarding entrepreneurship development within the UAE cultural context. The question which poses itself is whether female entrepreneurs get equal treatment and opportunities as their male counterparts. In addition, the study investigates the primary reasons behind few female entrepreneurs compared with their male counterparts in the UAE. In the outset, the study also compares and contrast the characteristics, motivation, management and marketing tools used by both male and female entrepreneurs and critically explore critically the effect of gender on time invested in running the business and entrepreneurship practices in the UAE context. In this context, the author of the present research is interested in conducting a survey on entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates to investigate the differences and similarities between male and female entrepreneurs and whether gender is a key factor on the differences and similarities between entrepreneurs.

[.pdf] GD198- Gender Equality in Education,Employment and Entrepreneurship – Final Report to the MCM 2012

This report from the OECD Gender Initiative is designed to inform, share policy experiences and good practices, and help governments promote gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship. It looks at the state of play from a gender perspective across all three issues, whether inequalities exist, how and why they have developed, and which obstacles need to be overcome to move towards greater equality. It offers policy advice to governments as to how they can create a more level playing field. Much of this advice is aimed at alleviating concerns around the experience of women and girls and removing the obstacles to equal participation in the economy, but gender equality is not just about the empowerment of women. This study also looks at why in many countries more success at school for girls has gone hand in hand with less success for boys in some subjects, why fathers may find it difficult to take full advantage of family-friendly policies and what can be done to improve matters. A greater sharing of paid and unpaid work is also about changing norms, culture, mind-sets and attitudes. Such changes take time, but policy has a role to play in raising public awareness of gender biases in society and promoting change.

[.pdf] GD200- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Activity – An Analysis of Informal Institutional Factors

The aim of this paper is to determine and compare the influence of certain informal institutional factors upon the decision to become an entrepreneur among men and women entrepreneurs in Spain. To attain this objective we adopt a socio-cultural institutional approach. We undertake a logit model using a robust Spanish dataset from 2003. The main contribution of this paper lies on the identification of specific factors that influence women entrepreneurship, which differ from those of men’s. The results show the importance of entrepreneurial self-confidence, as a common factor for both women and men entrepreneurial activity. The main result indicates that the presence of entrepreneurial role models is an important informal institutional factor explaining the difference between women and men’s entrepreneurial activity.

[.pdf] GD201- Gender, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Career Intentions – Implications for Entrepreneurship Education

Women play a substantial role in entrepreneurship throughout the world. In advanced market economies, women own 25% of all businesses and the number of women-owned businesses in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America are increasing rapidly (Estes, 1999; Jalbert, 2000). In the United States alone, the 6.7 million privately held majority women-owned businesses account for $1.19 trillion in sales and employ 9.8 million people. Moreover, the growth rate of women-owned businesses is impressive (Women-Owned Businesses, 2004). Between 1997 and 2004, employment in womenowned businesses increased by 39% compared to 12% nationally, and revenues rose by 46% compared to 34% among all privately held U.S. businesses. These data reinforce the value of studying women’s entrepreneurship, and likely account for the increased attention being paid to this area by scholars and educators. However, current trends mask the fact that men continue to be more active in entrepreneurship than women worldwide.We are motivated to further explore these relationships by our belief that a more complete understanding of the interplay between gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention 2 is key to improving the participation rate of women in entrepreneurial activities. In this article, we explore these relationships at two important life stages for individuals who are, or are potentially, interested in entrepreneurship as a career.

[.pdf] GD202- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurship – Evidence from GEM

Being a significant component of the contemporary business world, female entrepreneurial activity is considered a key element of economic growth worldwide, and especially in emerging markets. The present study explores gender differences in efficiency-driven countries based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data through correlation and regression analyses. An important finding of the paper is that training on starting a new business as a common factor, has a greater influence on female entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, training should be considered an essential issue when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity in general, of both female and male entrepreneurs.

GD203- Female Entrepreneurship Resource

Female-run enterprises are steadily growing all over the world, contributing to household incomes and growth of national economies. However, women face time, human, physical, and social constraints that limit their ability to grow their businesses. The Resource Point on Female Entrepreneurship responds to increasing demands for best practices and tools to integrate gender in private sector development and entrepreneurship promotion programs, and address the needs and constraints faced by female entrepreneurs. It is designed to have two functions – provide practical guidance and recommendations, and serve as a clearinghouse of programs, emerging research and data on the topic.

[.pdf] GD204- USAID_State Entrepreneurship Toolkit_0

The Entrepreneurship Toolkit has been developed to help USAID Mission and U.S. Embassy officers in the field in the design, implementation, and monitoring of entrepreneurship development programs. The Business Growth Initiative (BGI) project, throughout the course of interviewing Global Entrepreneurship Program (GEP) partners and non-GEP organizations, and supplemented by external research, actively focused on identifying, categorizing and compiling real-life examples that can be accurately defined as best practices of entrepreneurship, defined as a method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means. While it was certainly not BGI’s intention, nor within its scope, to develop a comprehensive guide to showcase all potential entrepreneurship best practices, significant efforts were made to find unique and compelling examples that can be effectively used by USG officials. With this in mind, BGI looked for a whole host of different approaches that have been successfully used, in order to provide its’ audience with a fair and representative sample of the types of activities implemented in the field of entrepreneurship.

[.pdf] GD205- Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform – A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners

This guide aims to provide fresh thinking to solve common issues women entrepreneurs face in the investment climate area. It presents actionable, practical, replicable, and scalable tools. Specifically, the guide seeks to enable devel opment practitioners and policy makers who are not gender specialists to (i) diagnose gender issues in an investment climate reform
area, (ii) design practical solutions and recommendations to address gender constraints, and (iii) include effective monitoring and evaluation tools to oversee the implementation of those
recommendations. While the guide is primarily directed to project leaders in IFC and World Bank Group managing investment climate reform projects, it will also be of use to a wider audience, including policy makers, the donor community, women’s business associations, academics, think tanks, and development practitioners who have an interest in gender and private sector development issues.

[.pdf] GD206- Strengthening Access to Finance for Women-Owned

This report highlights key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance. Due to their high growth potential, women-owned SMEs in developing countries are of particular interest. The report therefore focuses on the presence of womenowned SMEs in developing countries across different types of enterprises, and the ability of these business owners to access finance to grow their businesses; identifies financial and non-financial institutions with scalable approaches to increase access to finance for women entrepreneurs in developing countries; pinpoints specific knowledge gaps for which further research is recommended; and, provides policy recommendations on expanding access to finance for women entrepreneurs.

[.pdf] GD207- Support for Growth-oriented Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania – An Overview Report

This report is divided into two parts and six main sections. Part One covers the ackground information to the ILO-AfDB country-level studies on growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The first section provides the overview of the previous work of the AfDB and the ILO in support of women entrepreneurs and MFIs, and gives the origins of the current collaboration. The second section discusses the context for a growing global interest in the phenomenon of women entrepreneurs. It also provides and introduction to the investigative process and details of the methodology used in gathering information for the report, and presents a summary of key outcomes. The third section gives an overview of the situation facing women entrepreneurs in each of the three study countries. Part Two presents the findings and recommendations resulting from the application of the analytical integrated framework in the three countries. Section four presents an adapted and modified integrated framework which provides a systematic methodology for assessing key factors that can contribute effectively to women’s entrepreneurship development policies and programmes. The fifth section gives particular emphasis to good practices identified at the country level. The sixth and final section provides some general conclusions based on the entire assessment process.

[.pdf] GD208- Doing Business – Women in Africa

Doing Business – Opportunities for Women The Doing Business project has joined forces with theWorld Bank Group Gender Action Plan to launch a two-year research program on reforms that improve business opportunities for women. The project is identifying legal and regulatory barriers facing businesswomen, compiling a data base of relevant laws for each country, and determining reforms that are likely to have the biggest benefits for women. Doing Business:Women in Africa is the first in a series of regional reports designed to showcase successful women entrepreneurs and explore how they overcame obstacles to business creation and growth. The seven women profiled here represent countries from across the continent. Their generosity in sharing their stories, their successes and the obstacles they faced pave the way for more opportunities for other women entrepreneurs.

[.pdf] GD209- Promoting women’s financial inclusion – A toolkit

This toolkit is aimed at staff in governments, donor agencies and NGOs, who want information about how to design and implement programmes to enhance the financial inclusion of women. This might be as part of a broader programme of financial inclusion designed for the population as a whole, or as part of a range of activities designed to improve gender equality and the economic life-chances of women. In both cases, knowledge about the different approaches taken by past projects and their impacts and lessons, will be of value. This toolkit uses lessons drawn from past projects on improving financial inclusion, together with more general research literature, to discuss how such programmes can be effectively designed, implemented and monitored. This toolkit is mainly intended to help people designing programmes that use financial inclusion as a way to improve women’s economic empowerment. However, financial inclusion can empower women beyond their economic situations. As such, the toolkit will also be of interest to people working on programmes seeking broader empowerment outcomes for women, e.g. where financial inclusion may be only one of a range of objectives – such as an education programme with a savings component or a health programme with a microfinance component. It would also be appropriate to consider measuring the effectiveness of a women’s financial inclusion programme using indicators defined in social or even psychological terms, rather than just financially or economically.

[.pdf] GD210- The Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook For Business Environment Reform

This is a Handbook for Business Enabling Environment (BEE) practitioners offering guidance on Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) and within this the task of Impact Assessment (IA). The purpose of this Handbook is to strengthen awareness about M&E, engage interest in M&E, and to clarify what it entails, specifically for BEE practitioners.The Handbook is aimed at BEE practitioners with little experience or knowledge of M&E approaches and practices. It is not intended to make people M&E specialists. The Handbook is a resource for M&E work and an accessible means of sharing current good practice on M&E amongst BEE practitioners. Its messages and guidance are relevant for all BEE practitioners.This Handbook provides detailed ‘how-to’ approaches for undertaking M&E including: definitions of basic M&E terminology, indicators, how to integrate M&E into project cycle management, and how to use evaluation techniques. The Handbook draws from both research and case studies to highlight good practice and identify lessons of experience from a range of BEE projects and from a variety of interventions and development partners Its format is as a user guide with practical tips, checklists and step-by-step instructions based on field experience.

[.pdf] GD211- A Path Out of Poverty – Developing rural and women entrepreneurship a path out of poverty

This brochure describes UNIDO’s “Rural and Women Entrepreneurship (RWE) Development Programme”, which is managed by the Small and Medium Enterprises Branch. As a core
contribution of UNIDO to poverty reduction, the programme supports rural people and women in their aspirations for entrepreneurial initiatives. People living in the rural peripheries, and especially women, shoulder the burden of the world’s poverty, particularly in the Least Developed Countries and sub-Saharan Africa. They have been deprived for too long from participating in the opportunities and benefits of economic growth and globalization. Reducing urban-rural disparities and gender inequalities is a crucial element for any poverty reduction strategy. Mobilizing the potential productivity of rural people and particularly of women is indispensable to achieve the resilient economic growth that will pull people above the poverty line. Therefore, the RWE Programme aims at promoting a conducive business environment and at building institutional and human capacities that will encourage and support the entrepreneurial initiatives of rural people and women.

[.pdf] GD212- Scoping Study of Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Interventions – Knowledge Gaps for Assessment of Project Performance

The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED) brings together bilateral and multilateral agencies and private foundations to promote economic opportunity and self-reliance through private sector development in developing countries2. The DCED’s Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Working Group aims ‘to harness the knowledge and expertise of DCED member agencies to overcome some of the major obstacles to Women’s Entrepreneurship Development’. Although the DCED is a member-based committee, the WED Working Group is comprised of DCED members as well as other agencies who participate as observers in its activities from time to time. This study took place between April 1 and June 30, 2012. It followed an inclusive approach whereby DCED members and WED WG members were invited to participate, in addition to other agencies who participate in the WED WG as observers. The intention was to include as much material from as many agencies as possible, not limiting the enquiry only to those who had participated previously in the activities of the Working Group. The ILO-African Development Bank framework on WED, the UNCTAD Information Economy Report 20113 as well as other reference documents highlighted by the WED Working Group members were used to frame the stocktaking and knowledge gap analysis.

[.pdf] GD213- Powerful synergies Gender Equality, Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability

This volume is a collection of contributions by gender and sustainable development experts who explore the interconnections between gender equality, economic development and environmental sustainability. The experts provide insights, critiques, lessons learned and concrete proposals for promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment in international and national sustainable development efforts. The authors address development challenges across a range of sectors and global development issues such as energy, health, education, food security, climate change, human rights, consumption and production patterns and urbanization.The papers address gender issues within and across the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, and emphasize the need to draw on both women’s and men’s perspectives to inform the green economy. Some papers demonstrate how women and their communities could benefit from genderresponsive climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In exploring multiple facets of economic development, the papers present how sustainable forms of economic development and consumption patterns could strengthen women’s resilience against
natural disasters.

Female-Owned Firms In Latin America
Characteristics, Performance, And Obstacles To Growth

Author: Miriam Bruhn

Published: November 2009

Pages: 28

Egyptian Women Workers and Entrepreneurs

Editor: Sahar Nasr

Published: February 2010

Pages: 78

Gender in Bolivian Production
Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms

Editors: Yaye Sakho; Trine Lunde; Maria Arribas-Banos

Published: August 2009

Pages: 61

The Environment for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Nadereh Chamlou; Leora Klapper; Silvia Muzi

Editor: NA

Published: June 2008

Pages: 94