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Maternal Mortality and Infant Mortality

Last update: Dec 2007

Country or area
Afghanistan
2000
1900
+
[470-3500]
2005-2010
157
Albania
2000
55
+
[23-92]
2005-2010
19
Algeria
2000
140
+
[35-260]
2005-2010
31
American Samoa
2000
2000
a
6
Angola
2000
1700
+
[420-3100]
2005-2010
132
Antigua and Barbuda
2000
1995
*
17
c
Argentina
2000
82
[54-110]
2005-2010
13
Armenia
2000
55
+
[23-91]
2005-2010
29
Aruba
2000
2005-2010
17
Australia1
2000
8
[5-10]
2005-2010
4
Austria
2000
4
[3-5]
2005-2010
4
Azerbaijan
2000
94
+
[40-150]
2005-2010
72
Bahamas
2000
60
+
[25-98]
2005-2010
14
Bahrain
2000
28
[19-38]
2005-2010
11
Bangladesh
2000
380
[320-450]
2005-2010
52
Barbados
2000
95
[64-130]
2005-2010
10
Belarus
2000
35
[23-46]
2005-2010
9
Belgium
2000
10
[7-13]
2005-2010
4
Belize
2000
140
[70-280]
2005-2010
16
Benin
2000
850
[490-1200]
2005-2010
98
Bhutan
2000
420
+
[110-780]
2005-2010
45
Bolivia
2000
420
+
[110-790]
2005-2010
46
Bosnia and Herzegovina
2000
31
[21-42]
2005-2010
12
Botswana
2000
100
+
[25-190]
2005-2010
46
Brazil
2000
260
[160-370]
2005-2010
24
Brunei Darussalam
2000
37
[22-53]
2005-2010
6
Bulgaria
2000
32
[21-42]
2005-2010
12
Burkina Faso
2000
1000
[630-1500]
2005-2010
104
Burundi
2000
1000
+
[260-1900]
2005-2010
99
Cambodia
2000
450
[260-620]
2005-2010
63
Cameroon
2000
730
[430-1100]
2005-2010
88
Canada
2000
6
[4-8]
2005-2010
5
Cape Verde
2000
150
+
[37-280]
2005-2010
25
Central African Republic
2000
1100
[670-1600]
2005-2010
97
Chad
2000
1100
[620-1500]
2005-2010
119
Channel Islands2
2000
2005-2010
5
Chile
2000
31
[21-42]
2005-2010
7
China3
2000
56
[28-110]
2005-2010
23
China, Hong Kong SAR4
2000
2005-2010
4
China, Macao SAR5
2000
2005-2010
7
Colombia
2000
130
[83-180]
2005-2010
19
Comoros6
2000
480
+
[120-890]
2005-2010
48
Congo
2000
510
+
[130-960]
2005-2010
70
Cook Islands
2000
2002
a
21
Costa Rica
2000
43
[28-57]
2005-2010
10
Côte d’Ivoire
2000
690
+
[170-1300]
2005-2010
117
Croatia
2000
8
[5-11]
2005-2010
6
Cuba
2000
33
[16-66]
2005-2010
5
Cyprus
2000
47
[31-63]
2005-2010
6
Czech Republic
2000
9
[6-11]
2005-2010
4
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
2000
67
+
[17-130]
2005-2010
48
Democratic Republic of the Congo
2000
990
+
[250-1800]
2005-2010
114
Denmark
2000
5
[3-6]
2005-2010
4
Djibouti
2000
730
+
[190-1400]
2005-2010
85
Dominican Republic
2000
150
+
[37-280]
2005-2010
30
Ecuador
2000
130
[53-200]
2005-2010
21
Egypt
2000
84
[42-170]
2005-2010
29
El Salvador
2000
150
+
[37-270]
2005-2010
22
Equatorial Guinea
2000
880
+
[220-1600]
2005-2010
92
Eritrea
2000
630
[380-890]
2005-2010
55
Estonia
2000
63
[42-84]
2005-2010
7
Ethiopia
2000
850
[500-1200]
2005-2010
87
Fiji
2000
75
+
[19-140]
2005-2010
20
Finland7
2000
6
[4-8]
2005-2010
4
France
2000
17
[11-22]
2005-2010
4
French Guiana
2000
2005-2010
13
French Polynesia
1995
20
2005-2010
8
Gabon
2000
420
[240-600]
2005-2010
54
Gambia
2000
540
+
[140-1000]
2005-2010
74
Georgia
2000
32
+
[12-53]
2005-2010
39
Germany
2000
8
[5-11]
2005-2010
4
Ghana
2000
540
+
[140-1000]
2005-2010
57
Greece
2000
9
[6-12]
2005-2010
7
Grenada
2000
2005-2010
34
Guadeloupe
1995
5
2005-2010
7
Guam
1995
12
2005-2010
9
Guatemala
2000
240
[140-350]
2005-2010
30
Guinea
2000
740
[420-1100]
2005-2010
103
Guinea-Bissau
2000
1100
+
[280-2100]
2005-2010
113
Guyana
2000
170
[110-240]
2005-2010
43
Haiti
2000
680
[400-970]
2005-2010
49
Honduras
2000
110
[54-220]
2005-2010
28
Hungary
2000
16
[11-22]
2005-2010
7
Iceland
2000
0
[0-0]
2005-2010
3
India
2000
540
[430-650]
2005-2010
55
Indonesia
2000
230
+
[58-440]
2005-2010
27
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
2000
76
[38-150]
2005-2010
31
Iraq
2000
250
+
[62-460]
2005-2010
82
Ireland
2000
5
[4-7]
2005-2010
5
Isle of Man
2000
1996
*
2
Israel
2000
17
[11-22]
2005-2010
5
Italy
2000
5
[4-7]
2005-2010
5
Jamaica
2000
87
[44-170]
2005-2010
14
Japan
2000
10
[7-13]
2005-2010
3
Jordan
2000
41
[21-82]
2005-2010
19
Kazakhstan
2000
210
+
[120-299]
2005-2010
24
Kenya
2000
1000
[580-1400]
2005-2010
64
Kiribati
2000
2000
a
43
Kuwait
2000
5
[3-6]
2005-2010
8
Kyrgyzstan
2000
110
+
[48-180]
2005-2010
53
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
2000
650
+
[160-1200]
2005-2010
51
Latvia
2000
42
[28-56]
2005-2010
10
Lebanon
2000
150
+
[38-290]
2005-2010
22
Lesotho
2000
550
+
[140-1000]
2005-2010
65
Liberia
2000
760
+
[190-1400]
2005-2010
133
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
2000
97
+
[24-180]
2005-2010
18
Liechtenstein
2000
1997
*
18
Lithuania
2000
13
[9-18]
2005-2010
9
Luxembourg
2000
28
[18-37]
2005-2010
5
Madagascar
2000
550
[310-780]
2005-2010
66
Malawi
2000
1800
[1100-2600]
2005-2010
89
Malaysia
2000
41
[20-81]
2005-2010
9
Maldives
2000
110
+
[28-220]
2005-2010
34
Mali
2000
1200
[680-1700]
2005-2010
129
Malta
1995
21
[10-42]
2005-2010
6
Marshall Islands
2000
1999
a
37
b
Martinique
1995
4
2005-2010
7
Mauritania
2000
1000
[630-1500]
2005-2010
63
Mauritius8
2000
24
[16-32]
2005-2010
14
Mexico
2000
83
[56-110]
2005-2010
17
Micronesia (Federated States of)
2000
2005-2010
34
Mongolia
2000
110
[75-150]
2005-2010
40
Montenegro
2000
11
[7-15]
2005-2010
22
Morocco
2000
220
[120-310]
2005-2010
31
Mozambique
2000
1000
+
[260-2000]
2005-2010
96
Myanmar
2000
360
+
[91-660]
2005-2010
66
Namibia
2000
300
+
[74-550]
2005-2010
42
Nepal
2000
740
[440-1100]
2005-2010
54
Netherlands
2000
16
[10-21]
2005-2010
5
Netherlands Antilles
1995
20
2005-2010
15
New Caledonia
1995
10
2005-2010
6
New Zealand
2000
7
[5-10]
2005-2010
5
Nicaragua
2000
230
+
[58-420]
2005-2010
21
Niger
2000
1600
+
[420-3100]
2005-2010
111
Nigeria
2000
800
+
[210-1500]
2005-2010
109
Niue
2000
2001
a
29
Norway9
2000
16
[11-22]
2005-2010
3
Occupied Palestinian Territory
2000
100
+
[25-190]
2005-2010
18
Oman
2000
87
+
[22-160]
2005-2010
12
Pakistan
2000
500
+
[130-940]
2005-2010
67
Palau
2000
2001
a
18
Panama
2000
160
[110-220]
2005-2010
18
Papua New Guinea
2000
300
+
[77-570]
2005-2010
61
Paraguay
2000
170
[72-270]
2005-2010
32
Peru
2000
410
[230-590]
2005-2010
21
Philippines
2000
200
[120-280]
2005-2010
23
Poland
2000
13
[9-18]
2005-2010
7
Portugal
2000
5
[4-7]
2005-2010
5
Puerto Rico
2000
25
[16-33]
2005-2010
7
Qatar
2000
7
[3-14]
2005-2010
8
Republic of Korea
2000
20
[10-40]
2005-2010
4
Republic of Moldova
2000
36
[24-48]
2005-2010
16
Réunion
2000
41
+
[10-79]
2005-2010
13
Romania
2000
49
[33-66]
2005-2010
15
Russian Federation
2000
67
[45-90]
2005-2010
17
Rwanda
2000
1400
[790-2000]
2005-2010
112
Saint Lucia
2000
2005-2010
13
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
2000
2005-2010
23
Samoa
1995
130
2005-2010
22
Sao Tome and Principe
2000
2005-2010
72
Saudi Arabia
2000
23
[12-46]
2005-2010
19
Senegal
2000
690
+
[180-1300]
2005-2010
66
Serbia
2000
11
[7-15]
2005-2010
12
Sierra Leone
2000
2000
+
[510-3800]
2005-2010
160
Singapore
2000
30
[20-41]
2005-2010
3
Slovakia
2000
3
[2-4]
2005-2010
7
Slovenia
2000
17
[12-23]
2005-2010
5
Solomon Islands
2000
130
+
[33-240]
2005-2010
55
Somalia
2000
1100
+
[270-2000]
2005-2010
116
South Africa
2000
230
+
[58-430]
2005-2010
45
Spain
2000
4
[3-6]
2005-2010
4
Sri Lanka
2000
92
[46-180]
2005-2010
11
Sudan
2000
590
+
[150-1100]
2005-2010
65
Suriname
2000
110
[56-220]
2005-2010
28
Swaziland
2000
370
+
[94-700]
2005-2010
71
Sweden
2000
2
[1-3]
2005-2010
3
Switzerland
2000
7
[4-9]
2005-2010
4
Syrian Arab Republic
2000
160
+
[41-310]
2005-2010
16
Tajikistan
2000
100
+
[43-170]
2005-2010
60
Thailand
2000
44
[22-88]
2005-2010
11
TFYR of Macedonia10
2000
23
[15-30]
2005-2010
15
Timor-Leste (Democratic Republic of)
2000
660
+
[170-1200]
2005-2010
67
Togo
2000
570
[340-810]
2005-2010
89
Tonga
2000
2005-2010
19
Trinidad and Tobago
2000
160
[100-210]
2005-2010
12
Tunisia
2000
120
[49-190]
2005-2010
20
Turkey
2000
70
+
[18-130]
2005-2010
28
Turkmenistan
2000
31
+
[12-53]
2005-2010
75
Tuvalu
2000
2002
a
34
Uganda
2000
880
[510-1200]
2005-2010
77
Ukraine
2000
35
[23-47]
2005-2010
13
United Arab Emirates
2000
54
+
[14-100]
2005-2010
8
United Kingdom11
2000
13
[8-17]
2005-2010
5
United Republic of Tanzania
2000
1500
[910-2200]
2005-2010
73
United States of America
2000
17
[11-22]
2005-2010
6
United States Virgin Islands
2000
2005-2010
9
Uruguay
2000
27
[18-35]
2005-2010
13
Uzbekistan
2000
24
+
[9-41]
2005-2010
55
Vanuatu
1995
130
2005-2010
28
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
2000
96
[64-130]
2005-2010
17
Viet Nam
2000
130
+
[32-240]
2005-2010
20
Western Sahara
2000
2005-2010
44
Yemen
2000
570
[330-810]
2005-2010
59
Zambia
2000
750
[430-1100]
2005-2010
93
Zimbabwe
2000
1100
[620-1500]
2005-2010
58

 

Sources:

Estimated maternal mortality ratio
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Population Fund, Maternal mortality in 2000: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA (accessed Oct 2007).

Infant mortality rate
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007), World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. CD-ROM Edition – Comprehensive Dataset (United Nations publications, forthcoming); supplemented by official national statistics published in United Nations Demographic Yearbook 2003 and Demographic Yearbook 2004, available from the United Nations Statistics Division website, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/default.htm (accessed Dec 2007); and data compiled by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Demography Programme, available from the SPC website, http://www.spc.int/prism/social/health.html (accessed Dec 2007).

Footnotes:

Not available.
*
Data from official national life tables compiled by the United Nations Demographic Yearbook system.
+
For countries lacking complete vital registration or other acceptable national estimates of maternal mortality, the estimates are developed using a model. For each country, the regression model was used to predict the proportion maternal among deaths of women of reproductive age (PMDF), and the prediction was then applied to the WHO estimated envelope of HIV-adjusted deaths of women of reproductive age in 2000 to estimate maternal deaths. The MMR was then obtained by dividing the number of maternal deaths by an estimate of the number of births in 2000.
a
Data published by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Data refer to latest census year.
b
Infant mortality rate using the Life Table Method.
c
Rate based on 30 or fewer events.
1
Including Christmas Island, Cocos (keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island.
2
Including the islands of Guernsey and Jersey.
3
For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China.
4
As of 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China.
5
As of 20 December 1999, Macao became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China.
6
Including the island of Mayotte.
7
Including Aland Islands.
8
Including Agalega, Rodrigues and Saint Brandon.
9
Including Svalbard and Jan Mayen Island.
10
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
11
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island.

Top

Technical notes:

Maternal mortality ratio is defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in a given year. Maternal deaths are defined as those caused by deliveries and complications of pregnancy, child-birth and the puerperium. However, the exact definition varies from source to source and is not always clear in the original, particularly as regards the inclusion of abortion-related deaths.

Furthermore, the World Health Organization observes that most maternal deaths go unregistered in areas where maternal mortality rates are highest. To address this information gap, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund developed the above estimates of maternal mortality using a dual strategy. The strategy involved: (1) using available data, wherever possible, adjusted to account for under-reporting and misclassification of maternal deaths, and (2) developing a simple model to predict values for countries with no reliable national data. The estimates derived from this approach are considered to be more reliable than earlier ones and are the ones shown here.

Infant mortality rate is the total number of infants dying before reaching the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a given year. It is an approximation of the number of deaths per 1,000 children born alive who die within one year of birth.

Estimates and projections of the infant mortality rate are prepared every two years by the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat from data compiled by the Population Division and Statistics Division from national statistical sources. The best source of data to compute the infant mortality rate is a civil registration system covering at least 90 percent of births and deaths in a country or area. As many developing countries lack complete and reliable statistics of births and deaths based on civil registration, various estimation techniques are used to calculate the indicator from population censuses and demographic surveys.

 

(Source: United Nations Statistics Division)

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