Women’s wages relative to men’s

Gender Equality in the World of Work

Women’s Wages Relative to Men’s
Women’s Wages Relative to Men’s (2012)  –  Women’s Wages Relative to Men’s (2007)  
Global Wage Report 2012/13: Wages and equitable growth  –  Global Employment Trends for Women 2012  –  Wage Gap Charts
 Equal Pay: An Introductory Guide  –  ILO’s Repository on Gender Wage Gap … Plus Additional Resources on Gender Equality in the World of Work

 

                 
  Table 5e. Women’s wages relative to men’s 
Last update: December 2012
Women’s wages in manufacturing as a percentage of men’s wages
Country or area Year % Source
Andorra 2008 71 ARRS
Armenia 2008 61 LRES
Australia 2006 a,b 90 LRES
Austria 2003 62 IR
Azerbaijan 2008 60 LRES
Bahrain 2008 c,d,e 99 IR
Belgium 2007 a 86 LRES
Bermuda 2007 91 LREC
Botswana 2008 55 LRES
Brazil 2002 61 AR
Bulgaria 2007 f 70 LREC
China, Hong Kong SAR 2008 g,h,i 60 LRES
China, Macao SAR 2008 j,k 66 LFS
Colombia 2007 l,m 60 LFS
Costa Rica 2008 a,n 81 LFS
Croatia 2008 o,p 76 LRES
Cyprus 2006 a,q 65 LRES
Czech Republic 2005 h,r 65 LRES
Denmark 2007 a,e,s 87 LRES
Egypt 2007 t,d,h 66 LREC
El Salvador 2008 a,h,u 84 LRES
Finland 2008 v,w 85 LREC
France 2007 a,x 83 ARRS
French Polynesia 2003 87 IR
Georgia 2007 60 LREC
Germany 2008 a 76 LRES
Gibraltar 2007 t,h,y 61 LREC
Hungary 2007 z,v 73 LREC
Iceland 2008 v 72 LRES
Indonesia 2008 a1,b1,c1 68 LFS
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 2002 90 LRES
Ireland 2006 a,h,d,d1 80 LRES
Isle of Man 2008 a 113 LRES
Japan 2008 d,e,e1 61 LRES
Jordan 2008 63 LRES
Kazakhstan 2008 68 LRES
Latvia 2008 81 LRES
Lithuania 2008 a,f1,g1 70 LRES
Luxembourg 2008 b1 70 LREC
Madagascar 2005 a 85 HS
Malta 2008 a,j,c1 89 LFS
Mexico 2008 h1 72 LFS
Mongolia 2008 71 LRES
Myanmar 2008 g,i1,j1 88 LRES
Nepal 1999 n,c1,k1 45 LFS
Netherlands 2005 l1,v 83 LRES
New Zealand 2008 a,m1,v 81 LRES
Norway 2008 v,n1,l1 90 LREC
Occupied Palestinian Territory 2008 o1,c1,p1 50 LFS
Panama 2008 a,j,k,c1 97 LFS
Paraguay 2008 108 LFS
Philippines 2008 i 92 LFS
Portugal 2008 68 LRES
Qatar 2007 a1 142 LFS
Republic of Korea 2007 z 58 LRES
Romania 2007 75 LRES
Saint Helena 2002 72 TR
Saint Lucia 2003 a,b1,q1 81 LRES
Singapore 2008 65 IR
Sri Lanka 2008 a,g,h 81 LRES
Swaziland 2000 e,g,h,r1 57 LREC
Sweden 2008 a,e,h,o,s1 91 LRES
Switzerland 2008 t1 79 LRES
Syrian Arab Republic 2008 g,b1 79 LFS
Thailand 2003 a1 75 LFS
Ukraine 2008 71 LREC
United Kingdom 2008 a,v 83 LFS
United Republic of Tanzania  2001 g,a1 70 LRES
Footnotes
a Refers to earnings per hour.
b Full-time adult non-managerial employees. 
c All persons engaged
d Establishments with 10 or more persons employed.
e Private sector. 
f Employees under labour contract.
g ISIC-Rev.2 – 3
h Worker coverage: Wage earners.
i Refers to wage rates per day.
j Worker coverage: Total coverage.
k Median wage.
l Excl. armed forces.
m Persons aged 10 years and over.
n Main occupation.
o ISIC-Rev.4 – C
p Excl. employees in craft and trade. 
q Including family allowances and the value of payments in kind. 
r Enterprises with 20 or more employees. 
s Excl. young people aged less than 18 years and trainees.
t Refers to earnings per week.
u Urban areas.
v Full-time employees.
w Excl. seasonal and end-of-year bonuses.
x Incl. managerial staff and intermediary occupations. 
y Excl. part-time workers and juveniles. 
z Enterprises with 5 or more persons employed. 
a1 Refers to wage rates per month.
b1 Worker coverage: Salaried employees.
c1 Persons aged 15 years and over.
d1 Wage-earners on adult rates of pay.
e1 Regular scheduled cash earnings. 
f1 Excl. individual unincorporated enterprises. All employees converted into full-time units. 
g1 All employees converted into full-time units.
h1 Persons aged 14 years and over.
i1 Refers to wage rates per hour.
j1 Regular employees. 
k1 Fluctuations in wages due to small sample size. 
l1 Excl. overtime payments.
m1 Establishments with the equivalent of more than 0.5 full-time paid employees. Full-time equivalent employees.
n1 Only remuneration in cash.
o1 Refers to earnings per day.
p1 Net earnings.
q1 Unweighted survey results. 
r1 Skilled wage earners.
s1 Excluding holidays, sick-leave and overtime payments. 
t1 Standardised monthly earnings (40 hours x 4,3 weeks). 
Sources:
Calculated by the United Nations Statistics Division based on data published by the International Labour Office in Tables 5A Wages, by economic activity and 5B Wages in manufacturing, available from ILO LABORSTA website, http://laborsta.ilo.org.
ARRS   Administrative records and related sources.
LRES    Labour-related establishment survey.
IR        Insurance records.
LREC    Labour-related establishment census.
AR       Administrative reports.
LFS      Labour force survey.
HS       Household survey.
TR       Tax Records.
 

Technical notes:

The indicator presented in this table is the ratio of female wages to male wages in manufacturing, expressed as a percentage. In general, the wage statistics from which the indicator has been calculated refer to average earnings per month per employee (i.e. wage earners and salaried employees). Where this is not the case, it is indicated by a footnote.
This indicator is useful for tracking the extent of gender parity in wages within manufacturing. International comparisons of the wage ratios presented here, however, must be made with great caution. The coverage, definitions and methods of compiling wage statistics differ significantly from country to country. Weekly, daily and monthly earnings are much dependent on variations in hours of work. In addition, statistics of wage rates do not reflect the influence of changes in wage supplements nor the influence of variations in hours of work. Where female workers generally work a much smaller number of hours than male workers, these factors must be kept in mind when interpreting the wage ratio.
The data on average earnings are usually derived from payroll data supplied by a census or a sample of establishments, which often also furnish data on hours of work and on employment. In some cases, average earnings are compiled from labour force surveys or from a variety of administrative sources including social insurance and tax records.

Women’s wages in manufacturing as a percentage of men’s wages
Last update: Dec 2007
Country or area
Armenia 2006 70 LFES
Australia 2006 dj 90 LFES
Austria 2003 62 IR
Bahrain 2006 aks 77 IR
Belgium 2004 l 79 LFES
Bermuda 2005 m 91 LFEC
Botswana 2006 55 LFES
Brazil 2002 61 AR
Bulgaria 2005 n 69 LFEC
Colombia 2006 o 67 LFS
Costa Rica 2005 p 82 LFS
Croatia 2005 q 76 LFES
Cyprus 2006 dr 65 LFES
Czech Republic 2005 h 65 LFES
Denmark 2005 dst 87 LFEC
Egypt 2004 bhk 75 LFEC
El Salvador 2004 62 LFS
Eritrea 1996 e 66 LFES
Finland 2005 s 84 LFES
France 2002 78 LFS
French Polynesia 2003 87 AR
Georgia 2005 61 LFEC
Germany 2006 dh 74 LFES
Gibraltar 2005 dhu 80 LFEC
Greece 1998 adhk 82 LFES
Hong Kong, China 2005 amv 78 LFS
Hungary 2005 lw 74 LFES
Iceland 2004 x 81 LFES
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 2002 90 LFES
Ireland 2006 dhk 80 LFES
Isle of Man 2006 d 96 LFES
Japan 2006 ksy 59 LFES
Jordan 2005 61 LFES
Kazakhstan 2004 70 LFEC
Kenya 1997 az 123 LFEC
Korea, Republic of 2006 rw 57 LFES
Latvia 2006 79 LFES
Lithuania 2006 d+ 74 LFES
Luxembourg 2006 dh 72 LFEC
Macau, China 2006 66 LFES
Madagascar 2005 d 85 LFS
Malaysia 1997 a 63 ES
Malta 2006 dg 88 LFS
Mexico 2006 ^ 74 LFS
Mongolia 2005 77 LFES
Myanmar 1999 a 112 ES
Nepal 1999 p 45 LFS
Netherlands 2005 l* 83 LFES
New Zealand 2005 dl# 82 LFES
Norway 2006 l* 90 LFES
Panama 2006 dgm 129 LFS
Paraguay 2003 a 53 LFS
Peru (1) 1995 fh 55 LFES
Philippines 1999 76 ICS
Portugal 2005 67 LFES
Qatar 2005 e 161 LFES
Romania 2005 75 LFES
Saint Helena 2002 72 TR
Saint Lucia 2003 dh 71 LFES
Singapore 2006 64 IR
Sri Lanka 2005 adh 95 LFES
Swaziland 1997 ais 63 LFEC
Sweden 2006 dh 91 LFES
Switzerland 2004 77 LFES
Taiwan, China 2006 69 LFES
Thailand 2006 e 75 LFS
Turkey 1997 ac 97 IR
Ukraine 2006 71 LFEC
United Kingdom 2006 d 81 LFES
West Bank and Gaza Strip 2006 c 54 LFS

 

Sources:

Calculated by the United Nations Statistics Division based on data published by the International Labour Office in Tables 5A Wages, by economic activity and 5B Wages in manufacturing, available from ILO LABORSTA website, http://laborsta.ilo.org/ (accessed December 2007).

LFS Labour force survey.
LFEC Labour-related establishment census.
LFES Labour-related establishment survey.
ES Establishment survey.
ICS Industry/commercial survey.
IR Insurance records.
TR Tax records.
AR Administrative reports.

Footnotes:

1 Lima.
a Data refers to activities classified under major division 3: Manufacturing, as defined in the 1968 International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC-Rev. 2, 1968).
b Refers to earnings per week.
c Refers to earnings per day.
d Refers to earnings per hour.
e Refers to wage rates per month.
f Refers to wage rates per week.
g Worker coverage: Total employment.
h Worker coverage: Wage earners.
i Worker coverage: Unskilled workers.
j Worker coverage: Full-time adult non-managerial employees.
k Establishments with 10 or more persons employed.
l Worker coverage: Full-time employees.
m Median.
n Worker coverage: Employees under labour contract.
o Excludes armed forces. Persons aged 10 years and over.
p Refers to main occupation.
q Excludes employees in craft and trade.
r Including family allowances and the value of payments in kind. Refers to adults.
s Private sector.
t Excluding young people aged less than 18 years and trainees.
u Excluding part-time workers and juveniles.
v Including outworkers.
w Refers to enterprises with 5 or more employees.
x Refers to adult employees. Excluding irregular bonuses and the value of payments in kind.
y Regular scheduled cash earnings.
z Including the value of payments in kind.
^ Persons aged 14 years and over.
* Excluding overtime payments.
+ Excluding unincorporated establishments. All employees converted into full-time units.
# Establishments with the equivalent of more than 0.5 full-time paid employees.

Top

Technical notes:

The indicator presented in this table is the ratio of female wages to male wages in manufacturing, expressed as a percentage. In general, the wage statistics from which the indicator has been calculated refer to average earnings per month per employee (i.e. wage earners and salaried employees). Where this is not the case, it is indicated by a footnote.

This indicator is useful for tracking the extent of gender parity in wages within manufacturing. International comparisons of the wage ratios presented here, however, must be made with great caution. The coverage, definitions and methods of compiling wage statistics differ significantly from country to country. Weekly, daily and monthly earnings are much dependent on variations in hours of work. In addition, statistics of wage rates do not reflect the influence of changes in wage supplements nor the influence of variations in hours of work. Where female workers generally work a much smaller number of hours than male workers, these factors must be kept in mind when interpreting the wage ratio.

The data on average earnings are usually derived from payroll data supplied by a census or a sample of establishments, which often also furnish data on hours of work and on employment. In some cases, average earnings are compiled from labour force surveys or from a variety of administrative sources including social insurance and tax records.

(Source: United Nations Statistics Division)

Find information on Gender equality in the world of work through Labordoc, an ILO’ Searchable Database  
By Theme
By Region