Resources on Gender Issues

Topics: Gender & ....
(A) Agricultural & Rural Development - Aid Effectiveness - (C) Communication - Community Development - Concepts and Theory - Conflict - Culture - (D) Decision-Making - Development Cooperation - Disability - Discrimination - (E) Economic Development - Education - Energy - EntrepreneurshipEquality Results(F) Family - Finance - (G) Gender and development (General) - Glossaries (H) Health - Human Rights  - (I) Information and Communication Technology - (L) Legal - (M) Marriage - Men and BoysMigrations - (P) Policy (R) Results-Based Management (RBM) (S) Sports  -  Statistics  -  Sustainable Development -  (U) Urban development  -  (V) Value Chains  -  Violence -
(W) Work
...Agricultural & Rural Development

Resource within  the UN Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO) information base
Resources within the CGIAR website & Library .CGIAR stands for Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
Resources within IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute)





[.pdf]    GD109- Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook (791 pages)

The Sourcebook is the outcome of joint planning, continued interest in gender and agriculture, and concerted efforts by theWorld Bank, FAO, and IFAD. The purpose of the Sourcebook is to act as a guide for practitioners and  technical staff in addressing gender issues and integrating gender-responsive actions in the design and implementation of agricultural projects and programs. It speaks not with gender specialists on how to improve their skills but  rather reaches out to technical experts to guide them in thinking through how to integrate gender dimensions into their operations. The Sourcebook aims to deliver practical advice, guidelines,  principles, and descriptions and  illustrations of approaches that have worked so far to achieve the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agricultural operations of development agencies. It captures and expands the  main messages of theWorld  Development  Report 2008: Agriculture for Development and is considered an important tool to facilitate the operationalization and implementation of the report’s key principles on gender equality and women’s empowerment. The Sourcebook focuses on agricultural livelihoods, with agriculture defined broadly as “agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock, land and water, agro-industries, and environment,” following the FAO definition.


[.pdf]   GD102- A tool for gender-sensitive agriculture

The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.

[.pdf]   GD104- Integrating gender issues in food security and rural development

The purpose of these guidelines4 is to provide guidance on how FAO and national ministries of agriculture (MoAs)5 can support and use CEDAW at the country level as a tool for policy development and programming to achieve  equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development.

 [.pdf]  GD105- Policy Highlights - Gender in Agricultural Development Policies

Gender refers to the social roles and relations between women and men. This includes the different responsibilities of both in a given culture or location. Unlike the sex of men or women, which is biologically determined, gender  roles are socially constructed, and can change over time and vary according to geographic location. Social justice and fairness are arguments often advanced in support of gender considerations in development. In fact documented  evidence around the world (Box 1) shows that gender equity is positively linked to increased efficiency and better prospects for economic growth. It is now clear that biases

 against women hinder agricultural development and  reduce  the nutritional status of rural households. Women play a central role in agricultural production and marketing, hence in maintaining food security at household, community and national levels. The rationale for emphasising  gender in agricultural policies and strategies is as much one of economic efficiency as social equity.


[.pdf]   GD106- The role of gender in agricultural development

What factors contributed to adoption of a gender perspective
among those centers that have done so successfully? Why have the other IARCs found it difficult to deal with gender issues? What next steps should be taken by the CGIAR system to ensure system-wide attention to gender? Guided by these questions this paper addresses five areas. It begins with an overview of the rationale for including gender issues in agricultural research and development, then summarizes the existing gender issues  recommendations made to the CGIAR system. A synthesis of the discussion and recommendations made on differential user groups and gender issues at the 1987 ICW is included. The next section highlights innovative  strategies   and approaches taken by some centers to deal with certain gender issues. This is followed by an analysis of the reasons for the difficulties within the IARC community of incorporating gender-sensitive research and  development. Based on this analysis, and drawing upon the successful experiences from within the CGIAR system, the final section outlines next steps and alternative strategies to assist the CGIAR system in achieving a better  gender balance in the methods and operation of its research program.


[.pdf]   GD107- Gender Knowledge Note - Agriculture

The NZ Aid Programme’s Gender Equality Knowledge Notes aim to increase knowledge and understanding of gender equality and women’s empowerment. This Knowledge Note encourages a structural analysis of gender issues, reflected in the headings in the table on page 4: Women’s economic empowerment (economic), women’s participation in decision-making (political), risks and security, and basic needs and strategic interests.


[.pdf]   GD108- Transforming agricultural development and production in Africa

Results of a joint programme of the Salzburg Global Seminar and the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development 13-17 November 2011. Participants were a diverse mix, including representatives of rural women’s  groups and farmers’ organizations, private-sector leaders and investors, government officials, and donor and multilateral institutions. They met to examine the landscape of current activity, to explore shared goals and to develop  innovative ways to collaborate and take common action. This Salzburg meeting was timely, given that recent reports by IFAD, the World Bank and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) clearly show that empowering rural women increases agricultural production and food security in Africa. With these findings in mind, the participants focused on identifying successful interventions that could be further developed and devising mechanisms that could be used to close persistent gender gaps in policy and practice, such as differential access to financial tools, productive resources, and leadership and decision-making.


[.pdf]   GD110- ToolKit-for-Gender-and-Agriculture

Despite increased awareness, well-documented research findings and the availability of more information on women’s roles in agriculture at the country level, gender is not yet mainstreamed in the agriculture-related work of the  World Bank and its borrower countries. In fact, women’s pivotal role is still not sufficiently reflected in the design of agricultural programs and projects. One reason is that practitioners often lack the tools and know-how for integrating gender perspectives in their work. The present toolkit on gender issues in the agriculture sector is designed to partly fulfill this need. The toolkit is part of a series of toolkits being designed as tools for assisting task managers in improving project performance by incorporating gender into their work. It comprises ready-to-use material designed expressly for World Bank task managers working in the agriculture and natural resources management sector. It presents a range of tools for gender analysis and practical “how-to” strategies, collected from program and project experience from around the world.


[.pdf]   GD111- Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains

“Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook” is based on research studies and training programs conducted under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) Project. Over the life of  the project, GATE worked with seven USAID Missions (Albania, Bangladesh, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, and South Africa) to better integrate gender considerations into economic growth and trade-related programs  to expand areas of opportunity and mitigate the adverse effects of economic and trade expansion for poor women and men. Building on the growing body of empirical evidence that addressing gender issues in value chains can improve program outcomes, this Handbook presents a practical process for practitioners on how gender issues can inform the  design, implementation, and monitoring of USAID value chain programs. Influenced by some of the leading USAID value chain development approaches, the Handbook provides a methodology for analyzing how gender issues  constrain or support the ability of these programs to achieve their goals.


[.pdf]   GD112- Gender Aware Approaches in Agricultural Programme - A Study of Sida-supported Agricultural Programmes

The overall objective of this thematic evaluation is to ‘increase understanding of how development assistance in agriculture should be designed, implemented and funded to ensure that female farmers are reached, that their needs as  producers are met, and that they are able to benefit from the support to achieve a positive impact on their livelihoods


[.pdf]   GD113- Gender and agricultural innovation - Revisiting the debate through an innovation system perspective

This paper is an attempt to bring together two major streams of debate and policy analysis, which could make a major contribution to equitable development. The first concerns gender issues and how they relate to achieving both equity and efficiency goals. The second concerns innovation in agriculture and the way planning and policy is starting to view this as a multidimensional process driven by capacities distributed through society. This paper is being written in the context of a programme — the DFID-funded Research Into Use programme — that is exploring how research can be used for innovation and impact. The purpose of the paper is to reflect on the opportunities that  a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues and to provide some insight on what RIU might expect to achieve in this regard. The paper concludes with a call for two major shifts in practice and  analysis: (1) A shift from gender analysis to gender learning and (2) A shift from women’s empowerment to empowering innovation system capacity.


[.pdf]   GD114- Gender and Institutional Dimensions of Agricultural Technology Adoption

This paper reviews and integrates findings from existing empirical studies and case studies received from 35 organizations in various countries to identify demand- and supply-side constraints and opportunities in access, adoption  and impact of technological innovations. This review consistently finds that women have much slower observed rates of adoption of a wide range of technologies than men; and these are mainly due to differentiated access to  complementary inputs and services. There are limited studies that looked at upstream stages including priority-setting and innovation processes, in which women continue to be underrepresented.

[.pdf]   GD065- Gender Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture - World Bank

This toolkit has been developed to assist project task teams, borrowers, and partners to recognize and address gender concerns in designing rural development projects and to monitor and evaluate results, outcomes, and  impact on achieving overall rural well-being. To further this, the Agriculture Action Plan 2013–2015 (World Bank, 2012b) aims to include genderrelated analysis in 100% of its projects and gender-related actions and  M&E in 75% of its projects (Note C).


[.pdf]   GD097- Gender, Assets and Agricultural Development Programs

Being able to access, control, and own productive assets such as land, labor, finance, and social capital enables people to create stable and productive lives. Yet relatively little is known about how agricultural development programs can most effectively deliver these outcomes of well-being, empowerment, and higher income in a way that acknowledges differential access to and control over assets by men and women. After reviewing the literature on gender and assets, this paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding the gendered pathways through which asset accumulation occurs, including attention to not only men’s and women’s assets but also those they share in joint control and ownership.


[.pdf]    GD115- Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD

The Young Professionals’ Platform in Agricultural Research for Development (YPARD ) wishes to contribute to the debate on change in formal higher agricultural education with the views of young professionals and has hired two  consultants to carry out a study entitled “Working towards a new generation of Young Professionals in ARD”. The views of young professionals have not previously been included in discussions on curricula development. This is the  niche of this study. The study activities includes a brief literature review; a questionnaire targeting primarily young professionals to get their views; an analysis of results and comparison with information available in the literature; a  gathering of comments directly from young professionals in the form of short stories and finally preparing this report including a Key Message Brief aiming at emphasising key elements emerging from this study and upon which  YPARD could build in follow up actions.


[.pdf]    GD078- Gender and Rural Development - GIZ

Gender equality is clearly recognized as a human right on an international level. Over the past several years, UN member states have entered into a number of commitments. The Rome Declaration on Food Security,  resulting from  the FAO World Food Summit in 1996, affirms the obligation to promote the equal rights and duties of men and women regarding food security. The Millennium Development Goals underline the fact that,  without gender equality, it will be impossible to reduce by half the number of people who suffer from hunger by 2015. With its Development Policy Action Plan on Gender 2009 - 2012, the German Federal Ministry for  Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has committed to the economic empowerment of women and, in particular, to highlighting the need for genderspecific answers to the negative impact of  climate change  on agriculture.


Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship

Authors: Bob Rijkers; Rita Costa

Published: May 2012

Pages: 68 


Time Allocation in Rural Households: The Indirect Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Author: Amer Hasan

Published: March 2010

Pages: 47


Gender and Governance in Rural Services

Author: World Bank

Published: January 2010

Pages: 332


Left Behind To Farm ? Women's Labor Re-Allocation In Rural China

Authors: Ren Mu; Dominique van de Walle

Published: October 2009

Pages: 51


Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

Authors: World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

Published: October 2008

Pages: 765





...Aid Effectiveness



[.pdf]    GD038- DAC Guiding principles for aid effectiveness, gender equality and women's empowerment - OECD

These Guiding Principles focus primarily on the opportunities for using the implementation of the Paris Declaration’s principles and commitments to: Harmonise approaches to support for gender equality;  Implement  concrete actions, focussed on results and impacts;  Be responsible and accountable for those actions and for agreed commitments on gender equality and women’s empowerment.


[.pdf]    GD073- Capacity Development for Promoting Gender Equality in the Aid Effectiveness Agenda - UNIFEM

Lessons from Sub-regional Consultations in Africa This Discussion Paper outlines a capacity development strategy for advancing development effectiveness and gender equality in the new aid agenda.


[.pdf]    GD116- Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment - Donor Charts - March 2013

Charts (2010-2011) summarising statistics on aid focused on gender equality and women’s empowerment extended by each DAC member. Information shown includes the gender equality policy marker coverage, the top  ten recipients and a sector breakdown of aid focused on gender equality and women's empowerment.


[.pdf]    GD117- Findings from the Gender Equality Module of the 2011 Paris Declaration Monitoring Survey

This report is based on replies by the 24 countries that chose to test the gender equality module of the 2011 Paris Declaration Monitoring Survey: Albania, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Comoros,  Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Gabon, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Peru, Rwanda, Togo and Zambia.


[.pdf]    GD118- Supporting the Monitoring of Aid Effectiveness from a Gender Perspective

Report of a UN Women's multi-country study in Cambodia, Vietnam, Guatemala, Peru, Morocco and Mozambique, to document how far these countries have progressed in terms of the inclusion of a gender perspective  in their aid effectiveness processes, and to what extent CSOs participate and are able to oversee the implementation and results. The study, Supporting the Monitoring of Aid Effectiveness from a Gender Perspective, was  conducted in Cambodia by ActionAid Cambodia from September 2011 to March 2012.


[.pdf]    GD119- Ten-Country Overview Report Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda

This research report has been generated as part of a UNIFEM programme, “Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The programme is funded by the European Commission (EC) and  consists of research and programmatic technical assistance. The three-year programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on  gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS). In the first stage of the programme, research was carried out in ten developing countries (Mozambique, Morocco, India, Uganda, Tanzania,   Rwanda, Nepal, Cameroon, Peru and Ethiopia) in July 2008. The research aimed to investigate how GRB tools and strategies have been used in the context of currently used aid modalities-specifically general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS). The studies were conducted in the third quarter of 2008.


[.pdf]    GD120- Pacific Gender and Aid Effectiveness Case Study Report

This report presents the findings from four case studies of development assistance in the Pacific region, which illustrate how a focus on gender equality has fared in the context of the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid  Effectiveness. Additionally, the authors have drawn upon contemporary literature and their collective Pacific-based aid and development experiences to inform these findings and to make recommendations about how aid  and gender effectiveness can be enhanced. The strengthening of existing development policies and practices as well as the introduction of new gendered practices by the commissioning agencies - NZAID and AusAID -  can facilitate the vital outcome of aid and gender effectiveness for citizens. The four case studies were located in Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and across the Pacific region. These case studies  traversed a range of modalities and sectors, including HIV/AIDS; community development; roads; and policing. Each case study was operating at either the micro, meso or macro levels, and all had different approaches to gender.


[.pdf]    GD121- Aid Effectiveness and Women’s Rights Series - An Overview of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness & the New Aid Modalities

The purpose for creating this set of Primers, Understanding the Aid Effectiveness Agenda is to share critical information and analysis with women’s rights advocates about the new aid architecture that has emerged as a  result of the Paris Declaration (PD)—the most recent donor-recipient countries agreement designed to increase the impact of aid. The Aid effectiveness agenda born out of the PD currently determines how and to whom  aid is being delivered as well as how donor and recipient countries relate to one another. Aid distribution is clearly not simply a mechanistic process, but rather a political one. We hope that the facts and issues discussed  within these primers will encourage women’s rights advocates and CSOs to join in the process of calling for a more comprehensive, balanced, and inclusive approach to reforming aid so that it reaches the people who  need  it most, including women!


[.pdf]    GD122- Mapping Aid Effectiveness and Gender Equality in Africa - Regional Issues and Trends

This report provides an overview of the issues and trends that emerged from mapping studies on aid effectiveness, gender equality and women’s empowerment in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC),  Ethiopia and Ghana. The studies were carried out within the context of the EC/UN Partnership on Gender Equality for Development and Peace, a programme jointly supported and implemented by the European  Commission (EC), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITC/ILO).


[.pdf]    GD123- Gender equality and aid effectiveness - Challenges and opportunities for international practice - Experiences from South East Asia

A steering group from regional offices of DFID, UNIFEM and the World Bank decided to deepen mutual understanding amongst development practitioners of the challenges and opportunities for implementation of gender  equality objectives through the Paris Declaration in SE Asia. The workshop was held in Bangkok on 2‐3 April 2007. The purpose of this report is to summarise the issues and views emerging from the case studies and the  workshop.


[.pdf]    GD124- Gender Campus - The Global Development Agenda - Tools for Gender-Sensitive Planning and Implementation - Training Strategy and Trainer's Guide

This document proposes guidance for trainers as a part of the capacity building component of the EC/UN Partnership on Gender Equality for Development and Peace. The Partnership is a global initiative that involves the  European Commission (EC), the United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITCILO), and aims to identify approaches with which to  integrate gender equality and women’s human rights into new aid modalities, in accordance with the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This document describes the features of the modular training course “The global development agenda: tools for gender-sensitive planning and implementation”, which was designed to be delivered both online and face-to-face. Each of the nine training modules can be adapted to different contexts,  studied independently, or combined with others. The modular structure will allow facilitators to select contents from the training menu, to design a training programme adapted to the audience, to implement either sensitization or practical training sessions.


[.pdf]    ...GD124a- Gender Campus - Tools

Tool T1: Promoting gender equality through stakeholder participation; Tool T2: Increasing gender influence in policy making; Tool T3.1: Gender scan of poverty reduction strategy/Swap;
Tool T3.2: Checklist for gender scanning Prs or Swaps; Tool T4: Checklist for Ex Ante screening of gender sensitivity of poverty reduction strategies, sector programmes and macro-economic policies; Tool T5: Key notions for analysing and monitoring budgets from a gender perspective; Tool T6: Working in partnership to keep gender on the policy agenda;
Tool T7: Grid for the mid-term review of the CSPs.

[.pdf]    ...GD124b- Gender Campus - Gender and Aid Effectiveness Glossary

Gender and Aid Effectiveness Glossary


 ...GD124c- Gender Campus Module 0 - Must Know on Gender and Development

This Module equips you with the basic tools to adopt a “gender approach to development”. Unit A “Why?” illustrates the rationale for the promotion of gender equality in development, and gives an overview of the  international legal and policy frameworks supporting gender equality and women’s empowerment. Unit B “What?” familiarises you with the basic concepts and terminology related to the “gender discourse”. Unit C “How”  gives a brief overview of the methodological approaches to gender equality and illustrates practical tools for gender mainstreaming in development processes.

[.pdf]    ...GD124d- Gender Campus Module 0bis - Introduction to Gender sensitive indicators

This module provides some essential tools for mainstreaming gender equality in development cooperation.Unit A offers an overview of gender analysis as a systematic attempt to identify key issues contributing to gender  inequalities so that they can be properly addressed. Gender analysis provides the basis for gender mainstreaming, and is also needed to determine whether specific measures are needed for women or men in addition to  mainstreaming activities. Gender analysis should be conducted at all levels, from the grassroots (the micro level) through intermediate levels (meso level) such as service delivery systems, to the highest political levels (macro  level), and across all sectors and programmes of development cooperation. Unit B introduces participants to the basic concepts relating to gender-sensitive indicators, which are needed to measure progress towards  targets  which themselves need to be gender-sensitive. A prerequisite for conducting sound gender analysis, as well as for the establishment of gender-sensitive indicators, is the availability of statistical data disaggregated by  sex  and other more qualitative types of information reflecting differences between women and men.


[.pdf]    ...GD124e- Gender Campus Module 1 - Aid Effectiveness, the “New” Aid Architecture and Gender Equality

This module examines how the “new” aid architecture and the aid effectiveness agenda can positively contribute to gender equality and women’s empowerment, and includes an analysis of the gender dimension of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005).


[.pdf]    ...GD124f- Gender Campus Module 2 - Aid Effectiveness for Development Results – Which Indicators for Gender Equality

The module presents a set of gender-sensitive indicators for monitoring implementation of the Paris Declaration, an instrument which focuses on making aid delivery more effective, accountable, transparent and in line with  national poverty reductions plans. The indicators were endorsed by the Accra International Women’s Forum as a contribution to the High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (August 2008). These indicators can assist
governments and civil society in monitoring the “gender-sensitivity” of aid processes, and their effective contribution to the achievement of international and national gender equality objectives.


[.pdf]    ...GD124g- Gender Campus Module 3 - Financing Gender Equality Priorities

The first part of the module introduces the rationale for and benefits of increased national and international partnership in order to promote financing of gender equality and women’s empowerment. The module then presents some examples of tools that can be used, first, to estimate the costs of attaining gender equality goals; and second, to plan and monitor expenditures relating to the advancement of gender-sensitive development  objectives. This will include (i) a framework for costing MDGs and in particular MDG3, the OECD Gender Marker, so as to facilitate appraisal of the extent to which development aid contributes to gender equality; and  (ii) an overview of approaches to and tools for Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB).


[.pdf]    ...GD124h- Gender Campus Module 4 - Mainstreaming Gender in Development Planning

This Module addresses development planning frameworks from the perspective of gender equality and proposes entry points, strategies and tools to ensure that these processes contribute to advancing the gender equality  agenda. It also looks at the linkages between country-led national development planning and the management of aid flows. The first part of the module considers national planning frameworks and in particular Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs), which provide a country-owned framework to guide policy dialogue, effective programming and disbursement of cooperation aid. The second part of the module introduces Programme-Based Approaches which allow donors to engage in development cooperation based on the principle of coordinated support for a locally-owned programme of development. Specific focus will be given to Sector Wide  Approaches (SWAps) which are widely gaining momentum within the framework of donor programming in support of priority sectors as designated in the country’s PRSP.

.pdf]    ...GD124i- Gender Campus Module 5 - Mainstreaming Gender in Aid Programming and Delivery Mechanisms

This Module addresses the gender implications of those planning frameworks and aid delivery mechanisms used by donors to support national development plans and poverty reduction strategies.


[.pdf]    ...GD124j- Gender Campus Module 6 - Gender, development aid and decent work

Coherence between social and economic policies is a crucial element in ensuring that development frameworks are equitable and sustainable. Productive and freely-chosen employment is closely interlinked with  development, both as an objective to be pursued in its own right and as a means of reducing poverty. For this reason full and productive employment and decent work for all has recently been included as a target to help   pave the way towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1), the eradication of poverty. The ILO concept of Decent Work targets both the quantity and the quality of employment, and offers an integrated  framework for action in which gender equality plays a crucial role: the differential roles, positions and contributions of women and men in the world of work still pose numerous challenges that need to be addressed at all levels and in all sectors of development planning. This module addresses the inter-linkages between gender equality, decent and productive employment, and aid effectiveness. It offers some examples of how the  promotion  of “Decent Work” in development planning offers opportunities and entry points for enhancing development effectiveness and advancing gender equality in the context of the new aid architecture.


[.pdf]    ...GD124k- Gender Campus Module 7 - Aid Effectiveness and the Implementation of Security Council Resolutions 1325 & 1820

This module explores the gender dimension of the aid effectiveness agenda in regard to the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security and Security Council resolution 1820  (2008) which recognises sexual violence in conflict as a tactic of war. The first part of the module provides a broad overview of the aid effectiveness agenda and in particular the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and  the Accra Agenda for Action and their implications for gender equality. In the second part, the module discusses in detail the key elements and principles of the UN SCRs 1325 and 1820. The connections between and  relevance of the Paris Declaration principles and SCRs 1325 and 1820 are explored in the third part – with a particular focus on identifying key challenges and also entry points for strengthening the linkages and thereby  accelerate the implementation of SCRs 1325 and 1820 within the framework of the aid effectiveness agenda. Case study examples to illustrate ongoing efforts in implementing SCR 1325 are provided wherever relevant. A  specific example of the European Commission’s best practices and instruments that can be used to secure funding in support of women, peace and security is provided in Annex 1.


[.pdf]    GD125- Development Cooperation Beyond the Aid Effectiveness Paradigm - A women’s rights perspective

The failures of the current predominant patriarchal and neoliberal model of growth and development are more apparent than ever and have never been so widely acknowledged: even the establishment is showing interest in the need for a new development model and a new multilateralism.3 Yet, there is no easy answer on how to build a more inclusive and democratic international system. A new system that delivers for those who have been historically marginalised, many of whom—due to socially constructed roles and gender norms—are women. In order to explore alternatives or to bring existing proposals to decision-making tables and build a new governance system, it is essential to think holistically from the start. This involves understanding the different interlinked channels through which the crisis is transmitted and the processes, politics, and power imbalances in which they are embedded.


[.pdf]    GD126- Development effectiveness - Towards new understandings

This Issues Brief aims to make a contribution to thinking on development effectiveness by suggesting four categories under which it can be understood, based on how different aid actors describe and use the term1. The  four categories consider development effectiveness as: 1) organizational effectiveness; 2) coherence or coordination; 3) development outcomes from aid; and 4) overall development outcomes. This research is not  exhaustive, but rather represents a starting point for further discussion, and is part of a broader NSI research agenda on development effectiveness. Future studies will benefit by including more aid actors and sources, and  in particular by consulting with Southern stakeholders.


[.pdf]    GD129- Brief-on-development-effectivness-from-gender-perspective-2

This brief looks into gender equality as an essential development goal and how the current models governing development assistance undermine the protection and fulfillment of women’s rights. It also draws some recommendations on how development aid can genuinely transform women’s disadvantage and support the empowerment of both women and men to make significant changes in the developing world.


[.pdf]    GD130- MDG3 - Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

In 2000, 189 UN member states adopted the Millennium Declaration, which distils the key goals and targets agreed at the international conferences and world summits during the 1990s. Drawing on the Declaration, the    UN system drew up eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to provide a set of benchmarks to measure progress towards the eradication of global poverty.  MDG 3 interprets gender equality very narrowly, and  there is growing recognition that the targets and indicators that frame the goal on gender equality and women’s empowerment are too limited. Nevertheless, half the MDGs now have targets directly related to gender equality and women’s empowerment: MDG 1on decent work for women; MDGs 2 and 3 on girls’ education; and MDG 5 on maternal mortality and sexual and reproductive health. A review of progress related to   MDG 3, as well as the targets related to women’s sexual and reproductive health, shows that progress towards gender equality has been uneven over the past 10 years. With only five years to go until the deadline for  reaching the MDGs, we are now at a critical juncture to reflect on where and how countries have managed to achieve progress, and what lessons can be drawn to accelerate progress in countries where it has been too  slow.




[.pdf]    GD017-Communicating Gender For Rural Development - Integrating - FAO

This document is designed to promote the introduction of a gender perspective into communication for development initiatives in rural areas, and suggests practical ways of going about this. It consists of two parts. The first focuses on key concepts and guidelines relating to gender on the one hand and communication for development on the other, as well as on the synergy between gender and communication for development. The second part focuses on the various stages of a communication initiative, “revisiting” them from a gender perspective.


[.pdf]    GD132- The Gender Guide for Health Communication Programs

The purpose of the Gender Guide is to encourage the incorporation of gender-based roles and responsibilities in the design, implementation, and evaluation of health  communication programs. The guide does not directly address broad-based issues of gender equity. It does, however, provide questions to help program  managers determine how gender roles, for both women and men, may impede access to health information, restrict use of health services, or limit beneficial health  outcomes. By identifying this information, health communication programs can encourage individuals and communities to pay attention to resolving gender  inequities. Program planners should be aware that health behaviors, practices, or actions promoted by health communication programs may precipitate direct or  indirect changes in gender roles. If program planners anticipate changes in gender attitudes or roles, they should define those changes clearly and include them in  outcome indicators to measure changes.


[.pdf]    GD134- Gender and Communication

Communication is necessary in all aspects of human endeavour. This module looks at the difference in the way women and men communicate. It looks at social  settings and attempts to provide an understanding of behaviours that will ultimately help people feel comfortable and be effective in mixed gender environments.


[.pdf]    GD135- Media and Global Change - Out of focus - gender visibilities in development

In the spirit of “mapping the field” the author explores, in this chapter, tensions in the field across approaches recognizing women, gender, and feminist concerns. The very visibilities of development issues shift in focus and frame, across historical moment as well as institutional context.In order to provide an overview of the  field, the author focuses on the shifting  visibilities of women and gender within development, the material structures within which these visibilities are articulated,  and considers how feminist critiques might contribute to this dialogue


[.pdf]    GD137- Gender_and_communication_guide

Learn the history of how researchers have studied gender and communication, including the deficit, dominance, difference, and dynamic approaches.
• Find out what it means to “do gender.”
• Explore the range of masculine and feminine speech styles.
• Learn about tag questions, up-talk, one-ups, and competitive banter.
• Discover speech acts and what they mean for communication.
• Learn the most effective means of communication for managers and other authority figures.


[.pdf]    GD138- Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men - Opinion on “Breaking gender stereotypes in the media”

The Advisory Committee on Women and Men decided at its meeting on 19 November 2009 to set up a working group to prepare an opinion on women and the  media. At a meeting of the working group on 20 May 2010, the title was changed to “Breaking gender stereotypes in the media” The purpose of this opinion is to  propose measures for the promotion of a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women and men in the media and in new technologies of communication.  Together with this objective goes the purpose to promote equal opportunities and working conditions for women and men working in all areas of the media sector, as  well as to increase participation and access to expression and decisionmaking for women in and throughout the media. Freedom of expression and information  is also a fundamental right of our democracies. The right balance therefore needs to be found between the fundamental right to equality of women and men, the  breaking of gender stereotypes in the media and the fundamental right to freedom of information, freedom of expression in the media, diversity of opinion and media  pluralism.

[.pdf]    GD139- Enhancing Gender Equality in the Media in Eastern Africa

This regional report presents the results of a survey that was conducted by the Eastern Africa Journalists Association (EAJA) in collaboration with the International  Federation of Journalists (IFJ) Africa Office. The gender officers were responsible for conducting the research, processing the information and writing the country  reports were selected in collaboration with member unions and associations of EAJA. The survey in Eastern Africa in 2008 has revealed through the findings that  much remains to be done to achieve gender equality in journalism in the region. Eastern Africa is a war torn zone; however in the same region you have the  booming media businesses on the continent. The main challenge for journalists and other media workers in the region is to secure their safety and improve their  working conditions. In this struggle for safety, better social life and improved job careers, the concern and programmes for gender equity are usually not the  priorities for the journalists’ trade unions and the employers in the collective negotiations and career promotion.

[.pdf]    GD140- Mission Possible - A Gender and Media Advocacy Toolkit - Module 5 - How to gather evidence to support advocacy

This module identifies different ways that activists can undertake research on the media to gather facts with which they can engage the media when conducting  advocacy. Approaches to gathering evidence include media monitoring, audience research and conducting a gender audit of the media.


[.pdf]    GD141- The Gender and Media Handbook - Promoting Equality, Diversity & Empowerment

This handbook's aim is to help journalists and media professionals in Cyprus and internationally to be sensitive to gender issues such as negative portrayals of  women in the media, the lack of women in leadership positions in media organisations, etc., and to provide practical help for people who want to see things change . It is designed to be used, to be thumbed through, kept on the desk next to the computer, or to service formal training seminars. Modeled on similar handbooks  produced in countries as diverse as Kenya, Singapore, Norway, and elsewhere, it arrives as a punctuation mark at the end of a long project carried out by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies in Nicosia, Cyprus. As such, it represents the work and contributions of a wide range of media professionals; it stands as  a testament to their interest, their commitment, and to the principle they share that things have to change, and that it is women and men in the media who will
make this change happen.


[.pdf]    GD142- Gender, Race and Media Representation

This chapter explores some of the ways mediated communication in the United States represents the social constructions of race and gender and ultimately  contributes to our understanding of both, especially race.


[.pdf]    GD143- Gender Sensitive Reporting Manual

This Gender Sensitive training package is divided into two component parts: The Manual and Reading Materials The two are parts of the whole and are mutually  supportive. Although the manual can stand alone, the trainer needs the 'reading materials' to enable her/him to implement a knowledge-based in-depth course. The   reading materials are organised in such a way as to fit into the intended 8-day training programme. The package is for trainers who are intent on furthering the  interest of more gender sensitive reporting in the southern African media.The package was produced as part of the training component of UNESCO's Media  Development Project in Mozambique. The overall objective of the UNESCO project is to strengthen the human and technical capacity of the media - especially the  independent and private media - in Mozambique. This is part of the process of enhancing democracy, good governance and human rights in the country while promoting professionalism and editorial independence. This training package therefore addresses only one aspect of this process. Itsoverall objective is to ensure  the furtherance of more gender sensitive media reporting at a time of great social change in Mozambique and other parts of southern Africa.


[.pdf]    GD144- Radio, Convergence and Development in Africa - Gender as a Cross-Cutting Issue

A Paper Submitted to 'Radio Convergence and Development in Africa', by Mary Myers, September 2009 (updated November 2009).The purpose of the paper is to  argue for the consideration of gender issues in all research on radio, convergence and development in Africa. It was intended to guide the deliberations at our Butare  roundtable (September 2009) discussion on a research agenda and to ensure that we put gender considerations front and centre as we design our research  plans.


[.pdf]    GD145- Gender, Media and development - The Role of the Media in the Cultural Struggle of Gender Transformation in Tanzania

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insights on the role of the media in a symbolic struggle over the definition and status of women, and media’s potential  for socio-cultural change. A central idea in this study is that the movement from socialist to capitalist principles fosters conflicts between modern and traditional  values and ways of life, which also affects gender ideas and notions. The new situation represents both opportunities and risks for women’s liberation on both a  collective and an individual level. On the one hand, women are gaining independence by entering the economy with a force that was unthinkable just two decades  ago. On the other hand, there is a risk that women are blamed for ‘everything’ that goes wrong when traditional values clash with modern values and lifestyles. In  this new landscape, the media is an important cultural agent and an arena for conflicts and contestation. A key issue is how the media comes to grips with these  changes - the problems and tensions that arise in the process of modernization.


[.pdf]    GD146- Working with the Media - A Guide for Training and Planning

This guide has been developed following two “Gender, Education and the Media” workshops which were held in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2005 and in Dhaka,   Bangladesh in March 2006. It brings together learning from both workshops in order to help organisations working on gender and education develop and implement  media-advocacy strategies for gender equitable education. The guide is divided into 7 sections. Each section explores a different aspect of working with the media  on gender and education issues, starting with looking at education campaigning in general before focusing on gender issues in education, and the role of advocacy  and the media. You will find practical advice for working with the media on gender and education issues and suggestions of activities to help individuals or groups  generate discussion and develop their understanding of the issues addressed in more depth. These activities can be used as the basis for training others. A set of worksheets that correspond to these activities accompanies the guide and can be photocopied and used alongside the guide.


[.pdf]    GD147- Media Space and Gender Construction - A Comparative Study of State Owned and Private Channels in the Post Liberalisation Period

Gender is predominant phenomena and indeed produced and reproduced every day in term of femininity and masculinity. Under different contacts and process  gender is constructed every day, in which media is one of them. Visual media is one of them having much greater roles in compare to other available media such as print media, and electronic media. Thus, in the study visual media has been taken as a medium in regard to identify the predominant gender stereotypes. For this  study, four predominant Indian channels have been considered under the State owned and private media to regard the portrayed gender stereotypes from both  prime  and non-prime time. Among taken channels are DD (Doordarshan), Zee TV, Sony TV, and Star Plus TV. The State owned media have been considered for  the purpose of State’s view and their doing responsibility in regards to the portrayal of predominant gender stereotypes in both prime time and non prime time. This study comprehends a diagnostic look on visual media about their portrayal under both market and State’s responsibility since liberalization took place in India.  This is indeed true that both the private and State owned channels have own ways of interests regarding portrayal. Therefore this study broadens the research scope within the geographical perspective in non material spaces or metaphorical spaces like television, a virtual space. Which is considered as an important agent  towards gender construction?


The Media and Development
What's the Story?

Author: Gareth Locksley

Published: January 2009

Pages: 29


[.pdf]    GD252- Gender sensitive indicators for media - A framework of indicators to gauge gender sensitivity in media operations and content

Unesco, 2012, 185 pages


...Community Development



[.pdf]    GD063- Gender Equality in Community Development

Despite the inherent commitment of community development to addressing inequality - within the community and voluntary sector itself and in the implementation of  community development initiatives - significant gender inequalities exist. The following section outlines a number of issues which are the primary and most  persistent factors in gender inequality within the community and local development sector. They are presented within the   following categories: 1. Employment and  volunteering trends; 2. Underrepresentation of women in decision-making; 3. ‘Male culture’ of boards/committees; 4. Child-care; 5. Gender analysis; 6. Gender-disaggregated data; 7. Multiple disadvantage.


[.pdf]    GD152- Gender Dimensions of Community-Driven Development Operations - A Toolkit for Practitioners

The toolkit improves our understanding of why gender matters to the monitoring and evaluation of community-driven development (CDD) projects. It introduces M&E   topics that the non-specialist can find useful when constructing gender indicators. Furthermore, the toolkit presents a generic CDD results framework that provides   convenient categories for incorporating gender M&E indicators, tangible examples of gender indicators, and illustrates how gender M&E can be added to CDD  program results frameworks. The objective of this toolkit is to provide practical guidance to World Bank EAP (East Asia and Pacific) operational task teams and other community-driven development (CDD) practitioners (i.e. government/NGO staff ) on how to measure the gendered impact of CDD operations.

GD151- EAC Gender & Community Development Analysis - Burundi

For the sake of uniformity, the exercise on gender analysis in Burundi followed the same model such as presented in the Gender and Community Development  Framework for the East African Community. After a brief overview on the country profile and the good practices for each country, the model presents exploration of  the following elements: the legal framework, institutional mechanisms, capacity building for individuals and communities, issues of gender mainstreaming in priority  areas, research and documentation, gender and peace process.


GD153- Gender in Community Development and Resource Management - An Overview

This is the first paper in a series intended to examine the role of gender in community development and resource management. It outlines women's roles in natural  resource management and economic development, as well as socioeconomic, institutional, policy, and program constraints on women and their participation in projects aimed at improving resource management and alleviating poverty. Brief examples of succsessful initiatives are also provided.


GD154- Experiences of GL CRSP projects in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Kenya and Kyrgyzstan

Addressing gender disparities in economic growth, particularly in agriculture, is not a new goal for development interventions, but after a hiatus in the 1990s it has  received new attention in the past decade. Four research and outreach projects of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program working in  Ethiopia, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Kenya, and Kyrgyzstan implemented activities which both raised women's incomes and increased women's income-earning  opportunities and contributed to larger goals of community development and well-being. The projects facilitated increased women's participation into different types  of group-based activities, with consequences for improved incomes, health, and education outcomes. The capaCity-building process used in these different projects  and some of the results they achieved are described in this report.


...Concepts and Theory



[.pdf]    GD001-Gender and Development Concepts and Definitions - Bridge

Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) for its gender mainstreaming intranet resource. Selected concepts central to Gender and Development thinking are explained here. These are intended to help you explore some of the key ideas and issues in Gender and Development and their implications for policy and practice.


[.pdf]    GD005-A Conceptual Framework for Gender and Development Studies

This study intends to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework regarding the role and status of women in the development process. As such, it is based on different approaches which have been observed in the  'women and development' discourse from the 1950s onwards. These approaches are: welfare; women in development (WID); gender and development (GAD); and empowerment.


[.pdf]    GD026- Men Masculinty and gender development

This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on  exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity.


[.pdf]    GD044- Gender, ethnicity, development, and risk - University of Minnesota

At its core, the mentoring movement tries to foster relationships that promote positive developmental trajectories in protégés and, potentially, in mentors as well. Mentoring relationships are shaped by the unique qualities  each partner contributes to the dyad. In order for the matches made by formal mentoring programs to succeed, they need to increase the likelihood that this idiosyncratic melding of needs and resources will occur. To do  so, they need to specify the needs or goals to be met and understand the processes through which the program and the relationship will work. This article focuses on three areas of individual difference that have implications for the design and implementation of programs: (1) gender; (2) race, ethnicity, and culture; and (3) development.


[.pdf]    GD049- Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development

The module is concerned with the integration and recognition of women and their inclusion as decision-makers indevelopment planning and policy-making, as well as other development activities: it also celebrates women's  contributions to social, economic, and political development. The collaborative process was complicated, but rewarding. Although individuals or small teams authored specific chapters, feedback from the various writing
teams enriched and enlarged everyone's writing and thinking.


[.pdf]    GD060- Gender - biological theory

How do biopsychologists explain gender development? How have biological psychologists studied gender development?


[.pdf]    GD062- Gender inequality in human development - theories and measurement

inequalities in the opportunities and predicaments of women and men. Although this perspective has received some attention in past Reports, there is a strong case at this time for concentrating specifically on that issue for a  more comprehensive investigation of gender inequality in economic and social arrangements in the contemporary world. In performing this task, there is need for fresh economic and social analyses as well as careful and  probing empirical research. Women and men share many aspects of living together, collaborate with each other in complex and ubiquitous ways, and yet end up — often enough — with very different rewards and deprivations. This note is specifically concerned with developing a framework for "gender-equity-sensitive indicators" of achievements and freedoms. The methodology for this is explored in the sections that follow, ending  with specific recommendations to be put into practice.


[.pdf]    GD088- Gender, ethics and empowerment - Dilemmas of development fieldwork

For students and academics involved with development studies, fieldwork is often a critical  aspect of the research process. This process, however, can give rise to a plethora of ethical dilemmas relating to power gradients  between the researcher and the researched. Combined with this are complex issues of knowledge generation, ownership and exploitation. The sensitivity of these issues may be intensified when involving women as research  participants. Ethical issues regarding the validity and effectiveness of cross-cultural and cross-gendered fieldwork in Third World contexts are explored in this article, with examples drawn from recent research  practice. Following this review is a critical discussion concerning whether there is potential for the fieldwork process to be empowering for research participants.


[.pdf]    GD099- Development, Gender , Gender and Crime

Routine activities approach has gained considerable popularity in explaining crime rates. Its explanations are offered, however, without considering the approach's theoretical scope. Recent research suggests that the  explanatory power of the perspective might differ across level of economic development and men's and women's arrest rates. To address the issue of theoretical applicability, separate regression equations are estimated for the scope conditions of development and gender, using cross-national time-series analyses. The findings suggest that the explanatory power differs when the scope conditions of development and gender are applied. The routine activities approach appears to explain minor theft arrest rates most accurately for men in developed nations. In less developed nations, none of the four routine activities indicators showed a relationship with men's theft arrest rates. Two indicators, motivation and guardianship, evidenced a relationship with women's minor theft rates. The implications for the generalizability of the routine activities concepts across development and gender are discussed.


[.pdf]    GD100- Gender Differences in Identity and Intimacy Development

The relationship between gender, identity and intimacy was studied in a sample of 301 collegeaged students. Previous research demonstrated that male psychosocial development corresponds with Erik Erikson’s theory,  where identity development influences intimacy development. Additional research based on Carol Gilligan’s ideas suggested that identity and intimacy development may be fused in females. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires pertaining to the concepts of identity and intimacy at two different points in time. Data were tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and cross-lag analyses. Results indicated that intimacy was a predictor of identity in males. There were no significant correlations found between identity and intimacy in females. Further examination is needed to determine whether the results are due to sampling error  or simply a cultural shift in psychosocial personality development.


[.pdf]    GD101- Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation
Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people’s daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender-role development and  functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct  throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad  network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a  fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of  influence.


... Conflict



Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality : An Overview

Journal title: >World Bank Research Observer, volume 28, issue 1

Authors: Mayra Buvinic; Monica Das Gupta; Ursula Casabonne; Philip Verwimp

Pages: 29


War and Women's Work: Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal

Authors: Nidhiya Menon; Yana van der Meulen Rodgers

Published: August 2011

Pages: 49


The Effects of Conflict on Fertility in Rwanda

Authors: Kati Schindler; Tilman Brück

Published: June 2011

Pages: 47


Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment, And Civil Conflict : Evidence From 55 Developing Countries, 1986-2003

Author: Ostby, Gudrun

Published: April 2007

Pages: 34






[.pdf]    GD098- Gender, Culture and the Pacific - UNDP

The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of how culture in the Pacific impacts gender equality and human development. The analysis addresses two views that are widely held in the Pacific: 1) that  gender is biologically determined, and 2) that culture is a sacred template should not be meddled with. Both these notions have attracted sound scholarly consideration in the Pacific, which has shown that rather than either  being fixed, gender is socially constructed and culture is constituted by contemporary milieu as much as it is by its traditional and historical genealogy.


[.pdf]    GD156- Culture, Gender Equality and Development Cooperation

Concerns about culture are frequently raised in relation to initiatives for gender equality in development cooperation. In some cases, program officers or partners are concerned that promotion of gender equality would “interfere with local culture”, and therefore feel that gender equality should not be promoted for ethical reasons. In  other cases, the cultural values of a particular area are described as a major constraint on efforts for gender equality, and therefore action is considered to be difficult for practical reasons.Are these concerns valid? What should we be doing as development workers?


[.pdf]    GD158- Culture, Gender and Development in Africa

This study aims to analyse the critical role of cultural concepts, traditions and practices in Africa’s development. Other specific objectives include a review of  diverse definitions of culture and development concepts as they intertwine to form a framework for assessing the increasing awareness of the need to mainstream  cultural approaches to development strategies in Africa. Another important objective is to reveal the centrality of cultural approach to development in the on-going  international call for an inclusive gender and development strategy to enhance sustainability. Using desk research, the study explored this relationship from the  historical, current and future perspectives. The new emphasis on cultural approach to development can be traced to the World Conference on Cultural Policies  (MONDIACULT) held in Mexico City in 1982 and the subsequent declaration of the United Nations Decade of Culture.

[.pdf]    GD159- Integrating Human Rights,Culture and Gender In Programming - Participants Training Manual

The Manual is organized as follows: MODULE 1  - Session 1: Introduction to the workshop - Session 2: Importance of Culture, Gender and Human Rights in Development Work - Session 3: The Culture Lens and its  links with the MDGs - Session 4: Development Practitioners as Facilitators, Communicators and Negotiators. MODULE 2 - Session 1: Applying the “Culture Lens” - Session 2: How to Apply the Culture Lens at the UNCT level - Session 3: Evaluation and Global Feedback - Session 4: How to Communicate, Negotiate and Mediate in a Culturally Sensitive Approach


[.pdf]    GD160- Gender inequality and women's rights in the Great Lakes - Can culture contribute to women's empowerment

Culture is an important capability that people bring into development. It influences development through its various forms of expression; attitudes and behavior  related to work, reward and exchange; traditions of public discussion and participation; social support and association; cultural sites of heritage and memory; and  influences on values and morals. In this paper, we address the issue of gender inequalities by looking at ways in which the cultural repertoire in the Great Lakes  region can contribute to women’s empowerment.

[.pdf]    GD161- Another Side of India - Gender, Culture and Development

This volume of essays may be seen as a continuation of the UNITWIN objective of linking academic centres and ‘action research’ for development, in this case with   a gender, culture and people-centered development thematic scope, initially involving Boston University; Visva-Bharati at Shantiniketan, West Bengal; Jamia  Millia  Islamia at New Delhi; Punjabi University at Patiala, Punjab, plus several non-governmental organizations (the Bhab Initiative, Cultural Resource Conservation  Initiative and the Lime Centre). The ten essays in Another Side of India: Gender, Culture and Development, all deal with the Indian experience and one with South  Asia more broadly. Three themes are represented: governance, from a local, decentralized perspective prompted by the Panchayat decentralization movement  beginning in the early nineties in India; livelihoods and education initiatives; and women’s rights. The ‘open’ format of these perspectives and experiences shared  through the ten essays is deliberate, meant to encourage the entry of additional partners (both North and South) into this UNITWIN arrangement. The intended goal  is lively debate from a variety of viewpoints.


[.pdf]    GD162- Gender, culture and sustainable development—the Pacific way

Pacific women argue that they have not been disadvantaged in the development process, because they have been shielded by customary. ways. The case studies  presented below show tremendous faith of Pacific women in the family system—the family systems that are central to both Pacific women’s vision of what  development should be (as documented in the Pacific Platform of Action for Sustainable Development) and to the strategies Pacific women are using to achieve their development goals. At the same time, while Pacific women are preserving the customary ways, the question must be raised of whether the customary ways,  as they are practised, are ensuring women’s physical, social, economic and spiritual well-being in these times of transition. Women’s vulnerability in times of rapid change is briefly discussed.


[.pdf]    GD164- Gender Relations in Pacific cultures and their impact on the growth and development of children

This discussion of gender relations in Pacific cultures and the impact on children’s development and growth, looks at the contemporary Pacific and the experiences  of children today. Pacific culture is not seen in terms of an idealized past or present – indeed it would be misleading and dangerous for children to maintain a  constant cultural ideal, if it does not reflect reality. The focus here is on gender relations in Pacific Island countries today and ways in which gender relations has  impacts on children.

[.pdf]    GD165- A Cultural Perspective on Gender Diversity in Computing

This paper presents a cultural perspective towards thinking about, and acting on, issues concerning gender and computer science and related fields. We posit and  demonstrate that the notion of a gender divide in how men and women relate to computing, traditionally attributed to gender differences, is largely a result of cultural  and environmental conditions. Indeed, the reasons for women entering – or not entering – the field of computer science have little to do with gender and a  lot to do with environment and culture as well as the perception of the field. Appropriate outreach, education and interventions in the micro-culture can have broad  impact, increasing participation in computing and creating environments where both men and women can flourish. Thus, we refute the popular notion that focusing  on gender differences will enhance greater participation in computing, and propose an alternative, more constructive approach which focuses on culture. We  illustrate the cultural perspective using specific case studies based in different geographical and cultural regions.


[.pdf]    GD166- Discussing gender and international cultural relations

The British Council's awareness of gender as it affects cultural relations has developed and the Council was keen to explore its implications further. Thus it  engaged  Rosemary Bechler, a writer immersed in thinking about the relationship between human and political rights. Here she tackles the interplay of gender in  this relationship, outlining challenging, illuminating and relatively under-explored ideas. She talked to eight women who have made notable contributions in their  fields, including diversity, human rights, journalism and international relations. These interviews, held between December 2009 and December 2010, offer widely  differing perspectives and experiences. Women are far from a homogenous group, and the rich variety that exists when thinking about gender across diverse  cultures and its different impact on women depends on all those characteristics that make each one of us unique.


[.pdf]    GD167- Gender, culture and urbanization

In the developing world, women form a sizeable proportion of those who migrate from rural to urban areas in hope of a better life. But as they soon find out, urban  conditions and services are hostile to them and often permeated with the patriarchal culture that prevails in rural areas. This paper maps out the interplay between  gender, culture and urbanization, and how it enlarges or restricts the role of women in human settlements development around the world. It provides insights into the  way cultural and gender constructions relate to the social, economic, and cultural circumstances of women, and the extent to which women are involved in  addressing these unique circumstances.


[.pdf]    GD168- Gender and Cultural Change - Supporting Resources Collection

What has gender and development got to do with culture? Is gender and development (henceforth GAD) an interference in people’s cultures? How can these  issues   be tackled on a practical level? This booklet introduces a variety of resources that provide answers to these questions, in the form of summaries and  extracts from:
• Key resources, including findings and recommendations for policy makers and practitioners
• Case studies which challenge cultural norms both within societies and in the development industry
• Examples of training manuals, guides and bibliographies useful to those wishing to implement work on cultural change in development
This collection forms part of the BRIDGE Cutting Edge Pack ‘Gender and Cultural Change’ which includes an in brief bulletin and an overview report on the same  theme. It can be used on its own as an introduction to relevant resources, key ideas and experiences, or as a complement to other parts of the pack.


[.pdf]    GD169- Culture, Power Asymmetries and Gender in Conflict Transformation

In the first part, the author discusses the relationship between culture, attitudes to power and power asymmetry, constructions of gender and gender relations and  the impact of all three (and of their mutual influence) on conflict and its conduct. In the second part, she examines the implications of this for conflict transformation,  some of the tensions between the values and ideals it embodies and the realities of the situations it seeks to transform. In the third part of the  chapter, she considers how the needs of equality, cultural sensitivity and constructive approaches to power can be incorporated into organizations that seek to  contribute to conflict transformation, and suggest some elements of good practice in conflict intervention itself. She concludes by reflecting on the immensity of the  challenges that face us, suggesting that we need to add to rigour and analysis a more fluid and tentative approach.


[.pdf]    GD170- Gender, Embodiment and Cultural Practice - Towards a Relational Feminist Approach

This thesis thus seeks to develop a more historically-grounded, relational and politically accountable feminist approach to addressing essentialist constructions of  embodied 'cultural practice'. Mapping feminist and other critical literatures, the author identifies three main approaches to linking embodied practices: the  'continuum', 'analogue' and 'subset' models. Through three case study chapters, she conducts a comprehensive analysis of these models, and their potential discursive-material effects. Each case study focuses on a different set of practices which have been linked: 'African' female genital cutting and.-`Western' body modifications; Muslim veiling and anorexia; and 'passing' practices associated with the categories of race, gender and sexuality. The author argues that rather than illustrating how particular practices or their imagined subjects are fundamentally similar, we should examine how they are constructed relationally in and through one another. This is possible through genealogically tracing how their historical trajectories of production intersect and inform one another. As an alternative to commonality-based comparative approaches, she advocates a 'relational web model' which traces multiple constitutive connections within a network of differently situated embodied practices or figures.


[.pdf]    GD171- Validating Culture and Gender-Specific Constructs - A Mixed-Method Approach to Advance Assessment Procedures in Cross-Cultural Settings

This article demonstrates an emerging mixed-method technique for developing culturally sound assessment tools, offers guidance on how to incorporate the overall approach in assessment, and provides a basis for thinking critically about the use of existing instruments when working with diverse populations.

Is Deliberation Equitable? Evidence From Transcripts Of Village Meetings In South India



...Decision Making



Women's Decision Making Power and Human Development: Evidence from Pakistan

Author: Xiaohui Hou

Published: October 2011

Pages: 33


...Development Cooperation



[.pdf]    GD020-Integrating Gender Equality into Development Cooperation

On 27 and 28 November 2003, the European Commission (EuropeAid) and Sida Evaluation Units organised a joint seminar entitled “Integrating Gender Equality into Development Co-operation: Drawing Lessons from  the Recent Evaluations by Sida and the European Commission”. The point of departure for the seminar, on which this report is based, was two comprehensive evaluations of the implementation and results of gender  mainstreaming strategies conducted by the Commission and Sida respectively. Both evaluations aimed to assess progress with the implementation of policy commitments on gender equality in development co-operation,  and to provide guidance on how to move forward with the strategy of gender mainstreaming in development co-operation with partner countries.


[.pdf]    GD042- Approaches on Gender Equality in Development Cooperation

The study consists of four parts: (i) introduction to the study and the theoretical background, (ii) policy level issues in the UN and Finland, (iii) project level and (iv) conclusions. After the general introduction the author introduces the data and methods used in this study. After methods follows a short introduction to the background and basics of international development assistance; what is it and why is it done. Next there is an introduction to selescted scientific discussion  topîcs on gender and gender equality, which form the theoretical basis for my study.


[.pdf]    GD086- Gender Issues and Concerns in Financing for Development - INSTRAW

The United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development (ICFfD) meeting, held in Monterrey, Mexico on 18-22 March 2002, was convened by the United Nations, the World Bank, the International  Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), to discuss how financial resources could be mobilized and channeled to fulfill the international commitments that were agreed to at previous United  Nations conferences and summits of the 1990s, including those in the 2000 Millennium Development Goals - MDGs.The objective of this background paper is to use a gendered approach in examining the development  financing strategies endorsed in the 2002 Monterrey Consensus. The paper seeks to identify what needs to be done to  ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated in the followup mechanisms to the conference as  well as in the broader global effort for economic and gender justice, peace and the realization of human rights.


[.pdf]    GD172- Toolkit on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in EC Development Cooperation

This Handbook has four sections... Section 1: Handbook on concepts and methods formainstreaming gender equality -- Section 2: Ec priority areas for development cooperation: aspects for gender  analysis -- Section 3: Glossary of gender and development terms -- Section 4: Gender machineries, sources of information, contacts and networks


[.pdf]    GD173- Gender and the Millenium Development Goals

This issue of Gender Dialogue, looks at gender equality and women’s empowerment and the achievement of the MDGs.


[.pdf]    GD175- Development Cooperation Report - Evaluation of ODA to the Gender sector

The evaluation report relates to the extent to which gender issues have been integrated into ODA programs and projects in the period 1994-99 in South Africa. It presents tools and mechanisms to ensure gender-integrated ODA programs and projects in future, especially in the planning stages; and discusses tools and mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of projects and programs in terms of gender integration.


[.pdf]    GD116- Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment - Donor Charts - March 2013

Statistics based on DAC Members’ reporting on the Gender Equality Policy Marker, 2010-2011 Creditor Reporting System database.


Evidence on Changes in Aid Allocation Criteria

Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 23, issue 2

Authors: Claessens, Stijn; Cassimon, Danny; Van Campenhout, Bjorn

Pages: 24





[.pdf]    GD050- Mainstreaming Disability and Gender in Development Cooperation - IDDC

This training manual incorporates the experiences and ideas discussed at the national training workshop on disability and gender which took place in December 2006 in Netherlands. The purpose of this training manual is to  provide a tool that will enable the reader to learn from best practice examples currently applied in specific areas of disability and development work. The training manual will also inform the reader on how to reproduce a  similar training module in the future under different circumstances, as a way to spread knowledge and to reach out to an increasingly wide audience.


[.pdf]    GD176- Mainstreaming disability in development - Lessons from gender mainstreaming

In this paper DFID uses the experience of gender mainstreaming as a lens through which to view and reflect on some of the proposals for mainstreaming disability in development.


[.pdf]    GD177- Disability Rights, Gender, and Development A Resource Tool for Action

Disability Rights, Gender, and Development: A Resource Tool for Action provides valuable insights on the theory and practice of human rights-based approaches to development and contributes to this body of knowledge by designing innovative approaches to the implementation of the CPRD (Convention on the Rights of  Persons with Disabilities) in gender and child sensitive development activities. Building on existing experience in other human rights conventions, with a focus on  the linkages among the CRPD, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the  Child (CRC), the resource manual is designed to provide an intersectional analysis of the different treaties and build capacity among all stake holders to use  the normative frameworks of the different conventions  within a holistic framework of interrelated rights.


[.pdf]    GD178- Mainstreaming Gender in Disability and Rehabilitation - A development perspective

Part 1 of the paper asserts the links between disability and human rights by highlighting the relationship between disability, gender and development by examining  the ways in which poverty, environmental factors and gender issues determine access to health services by physically impaired women, men and young people in South Asia. It discusses the impact of gender relations on disability and suggest that the social construct of gender roles in society greatly affects the ways in which disabled women and men are perceived by others around them, their ability or otherwise to live with the disability and their access to rehabilitation services.   Within the context of good governance, the paper reviews good approaches to rehabilitation service delivery that reflect the realties of life experiences of disabled   women and men. The popularity of community based programmes in South Asia is discussed asan effective operational strategy for poor under-resourced  countries. In Part 2 of the paper the case study of a community hospital in Bangladesh specialising in the provision of medical care and rehabilitation services for  paralysed women, men and children is used as a basis to examine the extent to which a uniqueand specialised service was able to meet the gender needs of its  patients.

[.pdf]    GD179- Disabled People and Development

This document aims to provide a consolidated set of guidelines to identify and address the issues affecting people with disabilities in poverty reduction strategies.  These will assist people in the identification, design, preparation, and implementation of projects. The main contribution of this document is that it provides the  information and analytical tools for identifying the extent to which disability is a development issue; and for analyzing, identifying, and addressing the needs of  people with disabilities within development. The tools include a disability checklist, consisting of a set of key questions for investigation; suggestions for including  disability in programming; resources agencies and literature to access for more knowledge on disability issues; strategies for implementation; and case studies.


[.pdf]    GD182- Disability Inclusion - Women

Currently, very little gender-specific work is inclusive of women with a disability. There is a need for organisations working in the field of women and gender to better  understand how disability is experienced. The information in this resource is relevant for both women-specific activities along with gender programs.


[.pdf]    GD183- Guide to gender mainstreaming in public disability policies

This guide, fundamentally technical in character, seeks to explore how to effectively include women and girls with disabilities in different areas of life, often  overlooked in public policies, and to offer guidance to policy makers and third-sector activists on the topic. The main threads throughout the guide are the two  benchmark United Nations treaties: the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW, and the Convention on the Rights of  Persons with Disabilities, CRPD, and the 2nd Manifesto on the Rights of Women and Girls with Disabilities in the European Union - A toolkit for activists and  policymakers, adopted by the General Assembly of the European Disability Forum in May 2011, on which the contents of the guide are based. In eleven chapters  the guide covers a number of themes including accessibility, independent living, training and employment, education, violence and abuse, health and sexual and  reproductive rights, among others, under the guiding principles of equality and non-discrimination on the basis of gender or disability.


[.pdf]    GD185- Disability and International Cooperation and Development - A Review of Policies and Practices

This review examines recent policies of major multilateral and bilateral agencies, which they have employed to include disability in development aid. It also  provides,  whenever possible, examples of their programs. This review does not assess the merits or impact of those policies or practices; it only provides their  mapping. The content of the summaries of individual organizations and agencies updates and extends previous compilation efforts by Inclusion International (2005 a, b), Disability Awareness in Action (1995), Handicap International/ Christoffel-Blindenmission (2006), and United Nations (2009). The review indicates the following  five emerging trends: (i) disability has become a part of international cooperation and development aid; (ii) international cooperation policies often link disability to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); (iii) the agencies often combine several approaches to frame the inclusion of disability in development, including human  rights, participation, inclusion and development; (iv) disability is included both through specific/ targeted and mainstreaming/ inclusion/integration programs; and (v)  approaches, policies and programs are dynamic and have changed over time.


[.pdf]    GD187- Social Analysis and Disability - A Guidance Note

This Guidance Note offers a practical guide to integrating social analysis and disability-inclusive development into sector and thematic projects and programs of the   World Bank. Based on the Social Analysis Sourcebook, the Note provides an easy-to-access resource for the social analysis of disability. The Guidance Note  examines disability via sectors, cross-cutting issues, as well as by each of the Bank’s Regions. It also demonstrates how to ensure disability-inclusive development in the project cycle. The 12 boxes found throughout the following text, highlight a cornucopia of disability-related issues from human rights to  institutional barriers for youth with disabilities. The seven annexes offer additional in depth information: Disability Policy checklists, sample Terms of References  (TOR), an extensive reference list and a list of resources available on the Internet. This guidance note is not intended to promote special or separate disability and  development projects, but rather to assist Bank projects in better incorporating the needs and concerns of people with disabilities, as well as integrating a disability perspective into ongoing sector and thematic work programs, and to adopt an integrated and inclusive approach to disability.


Economic Implications of Chronic Illness and Disability in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

Editor: Cem Mete

Published: February 2008

Pages: 136


Disability, Poverty, and Schooling in Developing Countries:
Results from 14 Household Surveys

Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 22, issue 1

Author: Filmer, Deon

Pages: 23



...Disaster Management



[.pdf]    GD085- Integrating Gender in Disaster Management in Small Island Developing States - UNDP

UNDP is facilitating an inter-regional programme to foster south-south partnership between CDEMA, SPC and other regional partners to share best practices and strategies around common climate risk management issues facing SIDS. A critical element of this programme is the gender mainstreaming. Accordingly, this guide has been prepared as a useful tool for disaster managers and practitioners working in small islands states. The guide  seeks to support existing international frameworks that advocate gender equality. In the area of risk management and its relation to development,the defining international instrument is the Hyogo Framework of Action, approved as a result of the 2005 UN’s International Conference on Disaster Reduction. The Hyogo Framework holds the “inclusion of a gender perspective and cultural diversity” as cross-cutting principle and considers these to be fundamental for successfully increasing local, national and regional capacities to anticipate and deal with risks, and minimize their impact.


[.pdf]    GD096- Integrating Gender Issues in Disaster Risk Management Policy Development and in Projects

This note on Intregrating Gender issues in Disaster Risk Management is the second in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in disaster risk management (DRM). The first part of this note looks at mainstreaming gender considerations into policy development. The second part focuses on the World Bank project cycle identifying entry points and providing practical advice and links to good practice examples.


[.pdf]    GD070- The Gender Dimensions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

The purpose of this chapter is to construct a framework for understanding the gender dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction (PCR), in order to strengthen assessments, project design, and policy-formulation – all with  the aim of achieving the overarching goals of sustainable peace, participation and prosperity. Based on our experiences working with and reviewing projects in post-conflict settings, this chapter suggests gender dimensions that may strengthen programmes, promote gender equality, and enhance returns on PCR investments. It is predicated on the conviction that building and maintaining peace and prosperity requires attention to gender roles  and relations in the post-conflict arena. To illustrate the gender dimensions, we use examples from the World Bank and other donors, including a sample of the Bank’s large post-conflict reconstruction development loans  and its small post-conflict fund (PCF) grants.





Discrimination in Latin America
An Economic Perspective

Editors: Hugo Nopo; Alberto Chong; Andrea Moro

Published: December 2009


...Economic Development




[.pdf]    GD016-Maximising the Economic, Social and Environmental Role of Women - OECD

This report is a contribution by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) and its cross-cutting work on gender. It aims to increase understanding of the role of women in maintaining the three pillars – economic, social and environmental – of sustainable development. The report has been prepared by the OECD Horizontal Programme  on Sustainable Development and is based largely on OECD analyses. The data pertain primarily to the situation of women in OECD countries.


[.pdf]    GD025- Economic Development and Gender Equality - World Politics

Drawing on Simon Kuznets’s thesis regarding a curvilinear relationship between economic growth and income inequality, the authors suggest that economic development and gender inequality also exhibit a nonmonotonic  relationship, marked by three phases.1 In the first phase, economic development should improve gender equality; in the second phase, equality should plateau or even decline slightly; and in the third phase, it should rise  again.


[.pdf]    GD055- Gender Mainstreaming in Local Economic Development (LED) Strategies ...

This guide is designed to assist LED practitioners – staff from international organizations, international development agencies and local authorities– in identifying and addressing the sometimes different needs and priorities of  women and men, facilitating their full participation at every stage of the LED process, and contributing to gender equality objectives and outcomes. Using this guide will enable practitioners to : 1) understand why gender  equality should be pursued at the local level ; 2) be aware of the barriers to women’s participation that may be encountered ; and 3) identify and implement strategies for addressing gender concerns throughout the LED


[.pdf]    GD056- Micro-Macro Linkages Between Gender, Development, and Growt: Implications for the Caribbean Region

This paper contributes to the gender, development and growth literature, exploring the channels by which gender inequality affects, and in important ways, constrains economic development and growth in the Caribbean  region. To carry out this task, the author addresses three key questions regarding gender inequality. First, what institutional factors and structures cause women to live in economically precarious conditions to a greater extent than men? Second, what are the social benefits—the spillover effects—of reducing gender inequality for society as a whole? And finally, what policies might promote gender equity in well-being while simultaneously  promoting Caribbean development and growth?


[.pdf]    GD058- Gender, Economic Development and Islam - A Perspective from France

Muslims do less well on the French labor market than their non Muslim counterparts. One explanation for this relative failure can be characterized by the following syllogism: (1) the empowerment of women is a sine qua  non for economic progress; (2) in-group norms among Muslims do not empower women; and hence (3) Muslim communities will underperform economically relative to non-Muslim communities. This paper, relying on a  unique identification strategy that isolates religion from national origin and ethnicity, and on experimental as well as survey evidence collected in France, puts this syllogism to a test.


[.pdf]   GD032-Analysing the Gender Dimensions of Tourism as a Development Strategy

Although highly contested, the links between tourism and development are now wellestablished in academic and policy circles. Less clear is the potential of tourism to contribute more specifically to the achievement of the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG3), to ‘promote gender equality and empower women’. In order to explore this issue, this paper offers a feminist critique of contemporary tourism development policy.  Drawing together extensive research into the gender dimensions of tourism, the author set out the tensions between feminist visions of development and tourism development policy.


[.pdf]    GD057- Trade, sustainable development and gender - Unctad

The Pre-UNCTAD X Expert Workshop convened in Geneva focused on the theme of trade, sustainable development and gender. The meeting was organized in  line with the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing  and the Platform of Action (1995), the UNCTAD IX Midrand Declaration (1996) and the agreed  conclusions on gender mainstreaming (ECOSOC, 1997).The collection of papers reproduced in this volume not only  reflects the substantive issues reviewed in  this Expert Workshop, but also captures the spirit and enthusiasm of the participants displayed during their working sessions.


The Role of Men in the Economic and Social Development of Women: Implications for Gender Equality

Author: Lídia Farré

Published: January 2013

Pages: 39


Sustaining Educational and Economic Momentum in Africa

Author: World Bank

Published: May 2010

Pages: 51


Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform
A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

Authors: Sevi Simavi; Clare Manuel; Mark C. Blackden

Published: January 2010

Pages: 236


Women in Vanuatu
Analyzing Challenges to Economic Participation

Authors: Amanda Ellis; Claire Manuel; Jozefina Cutura; Chakriya Bowman

Published: April 2009

Pages: 103

Series: Directions In Development - Private Sector Development


Economic And Social Impacts Of Self-Help Groups In India

Authors: Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan

Published: April 2009

Pages: 35

Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam: A Socioeconomic Perspective

Authors: Baulch, Bob; Chuyen, Truong Thi Kim; Haughton, Dominique; Haughton, Jonathan

Published: April 2002

Pages: 43


Gender Equality, Poverty And Economic Growth

Authors: Morrison, Andrew; Raju, Dhushyanth; Sinha, Nistha

Published: November 2007

Pages: 57


Gender and Economic Growth in Tanzania: Creating Opportunities for Women

Author: World Bank

Published: October 2007

Pages: 141


Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya : Unleashing the Power of Women

Author: World Bank

Published: April 2007

Pages: 120


[.pdf] GD253- Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity





Gender-Targeted Conditional Cash Transfers: Enrollment, Spillover Effects and Instructional Quality

Author: Amer Hasan

Published: March 2010

Pages: 59


The Education System in Malawi

Author: World Bank

Editors: Mathieu Brossard; Diane Coury; Michael Mambo

Published: February 2010


Teachers in Anglophone Africa
Issues in Teacher Supply, Training, and Management

Author: Aidan Mulkeen

Published: December 2009

Pages: 199


Does Education Affect HIV Status? Evidence from five African Countries

Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 23, issue 2

Author: de Walque, Damien

Pages: 25


Educational And Health Impacts Of Two School Feeding Schemes

Authors: Kazianga, Harounan; de Walque, Damien; Alderman, Harold

Published: June 2009

Pages: 44


Emerging Evidence on Vouchers and Faith-Based Providers in Education

Editors: Harry Anthony Patrinos; Quentin Wodon; Felipe Barrera-Osorio

Published: June 2009

Pages: 186

Series: Directions In Development - Human Development

Type: Book

Addressing Educational Disparity

Authors: Jhingran, Dhir; Sankar, Deepa

Published: June 2009

Pages: 34

Type: Working paper

Number: 4955


The Role and Impact of Public-Private Partnerships in Education


The Evolving Regulatory Context for Private Education in Emerging Economies    
Discussion Paper and Case Studies

Editors: Svava Bjarnason; Harry Patrinos; Jee-Peng Tan

Published: December 2008

Pages: 65


At the Crossroads
Choices for Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Bank World

Editor: Adriaan M. Verspoor

Published: August 2008

Pages: 387


Girl's Education in the 21st Century

Gender Equality, Empowerment and Growth

Editors: Mercy Miyang Tembon; Lucia Fort

Published: August 2008

Pages: 313


Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: World Bank

Editor: Esi Sutherland-Addy

Published: July 2008

Pages: 63


Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data

Authors: Dreher, Axel; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Thiele, Rainer

Pages: 24


The Challenge of Expanding Secondary Education and Training in Madagascar

Author: World Bank

Published: May 2008

Pages: 97


An African Exploration of the East Asian Education Experience

Editors: Jee-Peng Tan; Birger Fredriksen

Published: April 2008

Pages: 374


Toward a Better Future

Education and Training for Economic Development in Singapore since 1965

Authors: Sing Kong Lee; Chor Boon Goh; Birger Fredriksen

Published: April 2008

Pages: 206


The Impact Of Private Provision Of Public Education : Empirical Evidence From Bogota's Concession Schools

Author: Barrera-Osorio, Felipe

Published: February 2007

Pages: 30


Education Inputs in Uganda: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Learning Achievement in Grade Six

Author: Harriet Nannyonjo

Published: June 2007

Pages: 90


Strengthening the Education Sector Response to HIV&AIDS in the Caribbean

Author: World Bank

Published: January 2008

Pages: 30


Transitions in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Equity and Efficiency Issues

Author: World Bank

Published: January 2008

Pages: 52


Governance, Management, and Accountability in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Published: January 2008






Energy, Gender and Development: What are the Linkages? Where is the Evidence?

Authors: Gunnar Köhlin; Erin O. Sills; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; Christopher Wilfong

Published: September 2011

Pages: 75



GD035- The Gender Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index

Produced by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI), the Gender-GEDI is the world's first diagnostic tool that comprehensively identifies and analyzes the conditions that foster high potential female entrepreneurship development. This initial 17-country pilot study provides key insights across several regions and levels of national economic development. Female entrepreneurship at large includes a vast array of activities – ranging from petty market traders and shopkeepers to biochemical company start-ups.


[.pdf]  GD196- Skills and entrepreneurship - Bridging the technology and gender divide

Technology, particularly the information and communication technology, is viewed as a potent force in transforming social, economic and political life across the globe. In many instances, the continuous development and application of technology has created vast new economic and employment opportunities. Most developing countries are harnessing the use of technology to accelerate their development processes. With an estimated 500 million people entering the global workforce over the next decade, coming to grips with the technological challenge is crucial. Without being “plugged in”, millions of women and men risk being left behind. Since women represent a significant majority of those who do not have access, there is a clear gender dimension to the technological divide. Therefore the technology divide is multifold.

[.pdf]  GD197- A Comparative Study on Gender and Entrepreneurship Development - Still a Male’s World within UAE cultural Context

The study probes the issue of gender equality regarding entrepreneurship development within the UAE cultural context. The question which poses itself is whether female entrepreneurs get equal treatment and opportunities as their male counterparts. In addition, the study investigates the primary reasons behind few female entrepreneurs compared with their male counterparts in the UAE. In the outset, the study also compares and contrast the characteristics, motivation, management and marketing tools used by both male and female entrepreneurs and critically explore critically the effect of gender on time invested in running the business and entrepreneurship practices in the UAE context. In this context, the author of the present research is interested in conducting a survey on entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates to investigate the differences and similarities between male and female entrepreneurs and whether gender is a key factor on the differences and similarities between entrepreneurs.


[.pdf]  GD198- Gender Equality in Education,Employment and Entrepreneurship - Final Report to the MCM 2012

This report from the OECD Gender Initiative is designed to inform, share policy experiences and good practices, and help governments promote gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship. It looks at the state of play from a gender perspective across all three issues, whether inequalities exist, how and why they have developed, and which obstacles need to be overcome to move towards greater equality. It offers policy advice to governments as to how they can create a more level playing field. Much of this advice is aimed at alleviating concerns around the experience of women and girls and removing the obstacles to equal participation in the economy, but gender equality is not just about the empowerment of women. This study also looks at why in many countries more success at school for girls has gone hand in hand with less success for boys in some subjects, why fathers may find it difficult to take full advantage of family-friendly policies and what can be done to improve matters. A greater sharing of paid and unpaid work is also about changing norms, culture, mind-sets and attitudes. Such changes take time, but policy has a role to play in raising public awareness of gender biases in society and promoting change.


[.pdf]  GD200- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Activity - An Analysis of Informal Institutional Factors

The aim of this paper is to determine and compare the influence of certain informal institutional factors upon the decision to become an entrepreneur among men and women entrepreneurs in Spain. To attain this objective we adopt a socio-cultural institutional approach. We undertake a logit model using a robust Spanish dataset from 2003. The main contribution of this paper lies on the identification of specific factors that influence women entrepreneurship, which differ from those of men’s. The results show the importance of entrepreneurial self-confidence, as a common factor for both women and men entrepreneurial activity. The main result indicates that the presence of entrepreneurial role models is an important informal institutional factor explaining the difference between women and men’s entrepreneurial activity.


[.pdf]  GD201- Gender, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Career Intentions - Implications for Entrepreneurship Education

Women play a substantial role in entrepreneurship throughout the world. In advanced market economies, women own 25% of all businesses and the number of women-owned businesses in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America are increasing rapidly (Estes, 1999; Jalbert, 2000). In the United States alone, the 6.7 million privately held majority women-owned businesses account for $1.19 trillion in sales and employ 9.8 million people. Moreover, the growth rate of women-owned businesses is impressive (Women-Owned Businesses, 2004). Between 1997 and 2004, employment in womenowned businesses increased by 39% compared to 12% nationally, and revenues rose by 46% compared to 34% among all privately held U.S. businesses. These data reinforce the value of studying women's entrepreneurship, and likely account for the increased attention being paid to this area by scholars and educators. However, current trends mask the fact that men continue to be more active in entrepreneurship than women worldwide.We are motivated to further explore these relationships by our belief that a more complete understanding of the interplay between gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention 2 is key to improving the participation rate of women in entrepreneurial activities. In this article, we explore these relationships at two important life stages for individuals who are, or are potentially, interested in entrepreneurship as a career.


[.pdf]  GD202- Gender Differences in Entrepreneurship - Evidence from GEM

Being a significant component of the contemporary business world, female entrepreneurial activity is considered a key element of economic growth worldwide, and especially in emerging markets. The present study explores gender differences in efficiency-driven countries based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data through correlation and regression analyses. An important finding of the paper is that training on starting a new business as a common factor, has a greater influence on female entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, training should be considered an essential issue when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity in general, of both female and male entrepreneurs.


GD203- Female Entrepreneurship Resource

Female-run enterprises are steadily growing all over the world, contributing to household incomes and growth of national economies. However, women face time, human, physical, and social constraints that limit their ability to grow their businesses. The Resource Point on Female Entrepreneurship responds to increasing demands for best practices and tools to integrate gender in private sector development and entrepreneurship promotion programs, and address the needs and constraints faced by female entrepreneurs. It is designed to have two functions – provide practical guidance and recommendations, and serve as a clearinghouse of programs, emerging research and data on the topic.

[.pdf]  GD204- USAID_State Entrepreneurship Toolkit_0

The Entrepreneurship Toolkit has been developed to help USAID Mission and U.S. Embassy officers in the field in the design, implementation, and monitoring of entrepreneurship development programs. The Business Growth Initiative (BGI) project, throughout the course of interviewing Global Entrepreneurship Program (GEP) partners and non-GEP organizations, and supplemented by external research, actively focused on identifying, categorizing and compiling real-life examples that can be accurately defined as best practices of entrepreneurship, defined as a method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means. While it was certainly not BGI’s intention, nor within its scope, to develop a comprehensive guide to showcase all potential entrepreneurship best practices, significant efforts were made to find unique and compelling examples that can be effectively used by USG officials. With this in mind, BGI looked for a whole host of different approaches that have been successfully used, in order to provide its’ audience with a fair and representative sample of the types of activities implemented in the field of entrepreneurship.


[.pdf]  GD205- Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform - A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners

This guide aims to provide fresh thinking to solve common issues women entrepreneurs face in the investment climate area. It presents actionable, practical, replicable, and scalable tools. Specifically, the guide seeks to enable devel opment practitioners and policy makers who are not gender specialists to (i) diagnose gender issues in an investment climate reform
area, (ii) design practical solutions and recommendations to address gender constraints, and (iii) include effective monitoring and evaluation tools to oversee the implementation of those
recommendations. While the guide is primarily directed to project leaders in IFC and World Bank Group managing investment climate reform projects, it will also be of use to a wider audience, including policy makers, the donor community, women’s business associations, academics, think tanks, and development practitioners who have an interest in gender and private sector development issues.


[.pdf]  GD206- Strengthening Access to Finance for Women-Owned

This report highlights key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance. Due to their high growth potential, women-owned SMEs in developing countries are of particular interest. The report therefore focuses on the presence of womenowned SMEs in developing countries across different types of enterprises, and the ability of these business owners to access finance to grow their businesses; identifies financial and non-financial institutions with scalable approaches to increase access to finance for women entrepreneurs in developing countries; pinpoints specific knowledge gaps for which further research is recommended; and, provides policy recommendations on expanding access to finance for women entrepreneurs.


[.pdf]  GD207- Support for Growth-oriented Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania - An Overview Report

This report is divided into two parts and six main sections. Part One covers the ackground information to the ILO-AfDB country-level studies on growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The first section provides the overview of the previous work of the AfDB and the ILO in support of women entrepreneurs and MFIs, and gives the origins of the current collaboration. The second section discusses the context for a growing global interest in the phenomenon of women entrepreneurs. It also provides and introduction to the investigative process and details of the methodology used in gathering information for the report, and presents a summary of key outcomes. The third section gives an overview of the situation facing women entrepreneurs in each of the three study countries. Part Two presents the findings and recommendations resulting from the application of the analytical integrated framework in the three countries. Section four presents an adapted and modified integrated framework which provides a systematic methodology for assessing key factors that can contribute effectively to women’s entrepreneurship development policies and programmes. The fifth section gives particular emphasis to good practices identified at the country level. The sixth and final section provides some general conclusions based on the entire assessment process.


[.pdf]  GD208- Doing Business - Women in Africa

Doing Business – Opportunities for Women The Doing Business project has joined forces with theWorld Bank Group Gender Action Plan to launch a two-year research program on reforms that improve business opportunities for women. The project is identifying legal and regulatory barriers facing businesswomen, compiling a data base of relevant laws for each country, and determining reforms that are likely to have the biggest benefits for women. Doing Business:Women in Africa is the first in a series of regional reports designed to showcase successful women entrepreneurs and explore how they overcame obstacles to business creation and growth. The seven women profiled here represent countries from across the continent. Their generosity in sharing their stories, their successes and the obstacles they faced pave the way for more opportunities for other women entrepreneurs.


[.pdf]  GD209- Promoting women’s financial inclusion - A toolkit

This toolkit is aimed at staff in governments, donor agencies and NGOs, who want information about how to design and implement programmes to enhance the financial inclusion of women. This might be as part of a broader programme of financial inclusion designed for the population as a whole, or as part of a range of activities designed to improve gender equality and the economic life-chances of women. In both cases, knowledge about the different approaches taken by past projects and their impacts and lessons, will be of value. This toolkit uses lessons drawn from past projects on improving financial inclusion, together with more general research literature, to discuss how such programmes can be effectively designed, implemented and monitored. This toolkit is mainly intended to help people designing programmes that use financial inclusion as a way to improve women’s economic empowerment. However, financial inclusion can empower women beyond their economic situations. As such, the toolkit will also be of interest to people working on programmes seeking broader empowerment outcomes for women, e.g. where financial inclusion may be only one of a range of objectives – such as an education programme with a savings component or a health programme with a microfinance component. It would also be appropriate to consider measuring the effectiveness of a women’s financial inclusion programme using indicators defined in social or even psychological terms, rather than just financially or economically.


[.pdf]  GD210- The Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook For Business Environment Reform

This is a Handbook for Business Enabling Environment (BEE) practitioners offering guidance on Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) and within this the task of Impact Assessment (IA). The purpose of this Handbook is to strengthen awareness about M&E, engage interest in M&E, and to clarify what it entails, specifically for BEE practitioners.The Handbook is aimed at BEE practitioners with little experience or knowledge of M&E approaches and practices. It is not intended to make people M&E specialists. The Handbook is a resource for M&E work and an accessible means of sharing current good practice on M&E amongst BEE practitioners. Its messages and guidance are relevant for all BEE practitioners.This Handbook provides detailed ‘how-to’ approaches for undertaking M&E including: definitions of basic M&E terminology, indicators, how to integrate M&E into project cycle management, and how to use evaluation techniques. The Handbook draws from both research and case studies to highlight good practice and identify lessons of experience from a range of BEE projects and from a variety of interventions and development partners Its format is as a user guide with practical tips, checklists and step-by-step instructions based on field experience.


[.pdf]  GD211- A Path Out of Poverty - Developing rural and women entrepreneurship a path out of poverty

This brochure describes UNIDO’s “Rural and Women Entrepreneurship (RWE) Development Programme”, which is managed by the Small and Medium Enterprises Branch. As a core
contribution of UNIDO to poverty reduction, the programme supports rural people and women in their aspirations for entrepreneurial initiatives. People living in the rural peripheries, and especially women, shoulder the burden of the world’s poverty, particularly in the Least Developed Countries and sub-Saharan Africa. They have been deprived for too long from participating in the opportunities and benefits of economic growth and globalization. Reducing urban-rural disparities and gender inequalities is a crucial element for any poverty reduction strategy. Mobilizing the potential productivity of rural people and particularly of women is indispensable to achieve the resilient economic growth that will pull people above the poverty line. Therefore, the RWE Programme aims at promoting a conducive business environment and at building institutional and human capacities that will encourage and support the entrepreneurial initiatives of rural people and women.


[.pdf]  GD212- Scoping Study of Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Interventions - Knowledge Gaps for Assessment of Project Performance

The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED) brings together bilateral and multilateral agencies and private foundations to promote economic opportunity and self-reliance through private sector development in developing countries2. The DCED’s Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Working Group aims ‘to harness the knowledge and expertise of DCED member agencies to overcome some of the major obstacles to Women’s Entrepreneurship Development’. Although the DCED is a member-based committee, the WED Working Group is comprised of DCED members as well as other agencies who participate as observers in its activities from time to time. This study took place between April 1 and June 30, 2012. It followed an inclusive approach whereby DCED members and WED WG members were invited to participate, in addition to other agencies who participate in the WED WG as observers. The intention was to include as much material from as many agencies as possible, not limiting the enquiry only to those who had participated previously in the activities of the Working Group. The ILO-African Development Bank framework on WED, the UNCTAD Information Economy Report 20113 as well as other reference documents highlighted by the WED Working Group members were used to frame the stocktaking and knowledge gap analysis.


[.pdf]  GD213- Powerful synergies Gender Equality, Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability

This volume is a collection of contributions by gender and sustainable development experts who explore the interconnections between gender equality, economic development and environmental sustainability. The experts provide insights, critiques, lessons learned and concrete proposals for promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment in international and national sustainable development efforts. The authors address development challenges across a range of sectors and global development issues such as energy, health, education, food security, climate change, human rights, consumption and production patterns and urbanization.The papers address gender issues within and across the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, and emphasize the need to draw on both women’s and men’s perspectives to inform the green economy. Some papers demonstrate how women and their communities could benefit from genderresponsive climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In exploring multiple facets of economic development, the papers present how sustainable forms of economic development and consumption patterns could strengthen women’s resilience against
natural disasters.


Female-Owned Firms In Latin America
Characteristics, Performance, And Obstacles To Growth

Author: Miriam Bruhn

Published: November 2009

Pages: 28


Egyptian Women Workers and Entrepreneurs

Editor: Sahar Nasr

Published: February 2010

Pages: 78


Gender in Bolivian Production
Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms

Editors: Yaye Sakho; Trine Lunde; Maria Arribas-Banos

Published: August 2009

Pages: 61


The Environment for Women's Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Nadereh Chamlou; Leora Klapper; Silvia Muzi

Editor: NA

Published: June 2008

Pages: 94


...Equality Results

[.pdf]  GD188- CIDA's Framework for Assessing Gender Equality Results
This framework responds to the need to assess progress on the implementation of CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality. It is also an important
advance in assessing equality as a crosscutting policy theme.The central question this framework is designed to address is the following:
To what extent do CIDA's development results reflect its policy commitment to gender equality?

[.pdf]  GD189- Gender equality results of public sector projects and programmes of the African Development Bank (2009-2011)
The African Development Bank’s Strategy for 2013-2022 “At the Centre of Africa’s Transformation” clearly defines gender equality as an important aspect of inclusive growth and  positions the Bank to reduce gender inequalities through a “focus on promoting women’s economic empowerment, strengthening women’s legal and property rights and enhancing knowledge management and capacity building.”7 The aim of this assignment is to review the contribution of public sector operations to gender equality results in Africa in order to  further the mainstreaming of gender within the Bank. 2. The report sets out the background to the review, in order to provide a recent history of the AfDB in terms of mainstreaming gender. It then states the objectives of the review, methodology and limitations thereof, followed by the main body of the report, consisting of responses to each of the key review questions. These are followed by overall conclusions, and corresponding recommendations.

[.pdf]  GD190- Gender Equality Results in ADB Projects - Regional Synthesis of Rapid Gender Assessments in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam
Strategy 2020 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) identified gender equity as a driver of change essential for achieving inclusive and sustainable growth, reducing poverty, and improving living standards. ADB is committed to designing gender-inclusive projects and paying careful attention to gender issues across the full range of its operations. ADB’s Gender and Development Plan of Action (ADB 2007a) aims to achieve this by strengthening the implementation of gender-related loan design features, institutionalizing the use of project-specificgender action plans (GAPs), including gender-related targets and indicators in the design and monitoring frameworks (DMFs) of all projects, and promoting compliance with gender-related loan covenants. Rapid gender assessments (RGAs) were undertaken of 12 loans in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam to assess gender equality results and progress against these organizational objectives. This report includes a summary of the GAP or gender provisions and the gender equality results achieved for each project (chapter II); an analysis of the gender equality results in each sector, and how these contributed to loan outcomes and effectiveness (chapter III); an analysis of the implementation and institutionalization of GAPs and gender provisions including their incorporation into DMFs and compliance with loan covenants (chapter IV); and conclusions and recommendations to improve the quality and institutionalization of GAPs (chapter V). Findings are compared with the first series of RGAs, conducted in 2004 and 2005 (RGA-I).

[.pdf]  GD191- Measuring Gender Equality Results - Paris Declaration and Other Ways
This paper will provide early tools for making the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development aid as proposed by the PD framework and borrowing from the Results Based Management paradigm accountable for gender equality results.

[.pdf]  GD192- Gender equality for development Results and lessons
This brochure shows the results of, and lessons learned from, Sweden’s efforts to promote gender equality in international development cooperation. The introduction gives a general description of the gender equality situation in Sweden’s partner countries. A presentation follows of bilateral and multilateral development cooperation, dialogue as an advocacy tool, and
challenges and conclusions.

[.pdf]  GD193- Mainstreaming Gender Equality - A Road to Results or a Road to Nowhere? -  Synthetis Report 2012
The objectives of the evaluation synthesis were to: • Examine experiences in mainstreaming gender equality across multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, and in so doing, • Highlight trends (commonalities and differences) in findings, challenges faced and good practices. The scope of the synthesis was guided by the following considerations: • Time period: From 1990 to 2010. in order to capture trends (similarities and differences) in findings and good practices from the women-in-development (WID) era to the current emphasis on gender and development (GAD); • Evaluation type: Primary emphasis was on thematic and country evaluations that had a specific focus on gender and/or women; • Stakeholder consultation and demand: The synthesis approach paper was circulated for discussion within the Bank in Spring 2010, and comments were used to focus on key issues of concern, such as good practices in mainstreaming processes.

[.pdf]  GD194- Accounting foy Gender Results - A Review of the Philippine GAD Budget Policy
The evaluation looked into the four aspects of the implementation of he gender budget policy. One aspect is the performance of NEDA, NCRFW and DBM in ensuring that the GAD Budget Policy is implemented. This involved an analysis of efforts of the three oversight agencies to implement the law through the promotion of gender-responsive planning; development of tools and guidelines for development planning and advocacy; programming, monitoring and evaluation, and necessary adjustments to the guidelines in response to emerging developments; and monitoring of compliance of various agencies with the policy. A second aspect, compliance of government departments to the GAD Budget Policy, required an investigation of trends in terms of GAD budget levels, as a percentage of government department/agency budgets, number of compliant departments/agencies, and reasons for non-compliance. The third aspect is the utilization of the GAD budget. It meant looking into activities supported by the budget, and how this utilization pattern affected GAD mainstreaming
and women. The last area involved the analysis of measures to improve compliance to and performance of the GAD Budget Policy. The interviews with officials and/or technical staff of the oversight agencies and the case studies were distilled to identify factors that induced agencies to undertake GAD planning, craft GAD budgets, and use the budgets to obtain gender equality and women’s empowerment results.

[.pdf]  GD195- Indicators for Measuring Results on Gender Equality
The Swedish Policy on Gender Equality and Women´s Rights and Role in Development (2010) underlines the importance of developing context-specific qualitative and quantitative indicators for the monitoring of work on gender equality. The purpose of this document is to provide a selection of potential indicators from which Sida country teams can choose in order to monitor results in gender equality work in different sectors. This material is to be seen as a contribution to that work – not the answer to all questions about gender indicators. The list of proposed indicators can be used as inspiration while developing the Result Matrix but also with a view to having indicators that would work in partner countries’ own monitoring of results e.g. Performance Assessment Framework, monitoring of National Action Plans on gender equality etc.




Family Systems, Political Systems, And Asia's 'Missing Girls'
The Construction Of Son Preference And Its Unraveling

Author: Monica Das Gupta

Published: December 2009

Pages: 34


The Long-Run Impacts Of Adult Deaths On Older Household Members In Tanzania

Authors: Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Beegle, Kathleen

Published: September 2009

Pages: 42


Leveling The Intra-Household Playing Field

Authors: V. Del Carpio, Ximena; Macours, Karen

Published: January 2009

Pages: 30


Intrahousehold Inequality And Child Gender Bias In Ethiopia

Author: Koohi-Kamali, Feridoon

Published: November 2008

Pages: 27






Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are women disadvantaged?

Authors: Reyes Aterido; Thorsten Beck; Leonardo Iacovone

Published: February 2011

Pages: 51


Long-Term Financial Incentives And Investment In Daughters

Authors: Sinha, Nistha; Yoong, Joanne

Published: March 2009

Pages: 39


India's Investment Climate
Voices of Indian Business

Authors: Aurora Ferrari; Inderbir Singh Dhingra

Published: November 2008

Pages: 160


Are Women More Credit Constrained? Experimental Evidence On Gender And Microenterprise Returns

Authors: de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher

Published: October 2008

Pages: 45


The Market For Retirement Products In Sweden

Author: Palmer, Edward

Published: October 2008

Pages: 74


Gender And Asset Ownership

Authors: Doss, Cheryl; Grown, Caren; Deere, Carmen Diana

Published: September 2008

Pages: 78



...Gender and Development (General)



[.pdf]    GD002-Guide to Gender and Development - AusAID
The Guide has been prepared to facilitate gender planning in AusAID development programs. It is intended to be a tool to help Activity Managers and contractors effectively implement AusAID’s Gender and Development  Policy.Other donor countries use similar lists of questions, checklists and guidelines in their programs, and these have provided the basis for developing this Guide. The checklists consulted include those for  the Canadian, Finnish and Dutch International Development Agencies in addition to those for the European Commission and INSTRAW (the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the  Advancement of Women).


[.pdf]    GD003-Gender and Development - Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

Training packages produced by the CIDA-funded Canada-Nepal Gender in Organizations Project.


[.pdf]    GD007-Gender and Development - Independent Evaluation Group - World Bank

This book synthesizes IFPRI’s research on intrahousehold allocation since the publication of Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Models, Methods, and Policy, edited by Lawrence
Haddad, John Hoddinott, and Harold Alderman, in 1997.


[.pdf]    GD008-June Mapala Muleya - Gender and Development

This research report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Gender and Peace Building.


[.pdf]    GD013-World Development Report 2012 - Gender Equality and Development - World Bank

This Report points to four priority areas for policy going forward. First, reducing gender gaps in human capital—specifi cally those that address female mortality and education. Second, closing gender gaps in access to  economic opportunities, earnings, and productivity. Third, shrinking gender differences in voice and agency within society. Fourth, limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations. These are all areas where  higher incomes by themselves do little to reduce gender gaps, but focused policies can have a real impact.


[.pdf]    GD014-Busan Joint Action Plan for Gender Equality and Development - OECD

This Plan captures commitments to gender equality, women’s empowerment and women’s rights made at the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF-4) in Busan, Republic of Korea. Our intent is to build  momentum for implementing commitments in a timely and effective manner by expressing our support and desire to participate in post-Busan activities, as appropriate and in a coordinated way, and giving due consideration  to applicable provisions of CEDAW, the Beijing Platform for Action, and other human rights instruments.


[.pdf]    GD015-Gender - Report on Engendering Development - World Bank

Engendering Developmenpt rovidesp olicymakersd, evelopments pecialists, and civil society members many valuable lessons and tools for integrating gender into development work. The wealth of evidence and analysis presented in the report can inform the design of effectives trategies to promote equality between women and men in development.


[.pdf]    GD024-Development and Gender Equality - Consequences, Causes, Challenges and Cures - HECR

This paper reviews the economic literature that touches the role of gender in the economy, with specific focus on issues that might be expected to be the most critical for overall development.


[.pdf]    GD027- Gender Awareness and Development Manual - UNDP

This collection of training tools and exercises has been provided so that trainers can develop workshops targeted to all staff regardless of seniority level and managerial responsibilities. The content is designed to provide staff with the necessary knowledge and tools to integrate gender issues into their work.


[.pdf]    GD028-gender and development training kit- AQOCI

The kit was designed for use in training trainers, both women and men, in the Gender and Development approach.The contents of this training kit were adapted from ”Un autre genre de développement,” a document  produced by the Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC), MATCH, AQOCI, in August 1991.


[.pdf]    GD033- Strategies for Promoting Gender Equity in Developing Countries - Reliefweb

On Thursday, April 26, 2007, the Woodrow Wilson Center convened a group of experts on gender and development to address the issue of gender inequality from a variety of perspectives. Panelists reflected on past   efforts to promote gender equity and discussed effective strategies for the way forward.


[.pdf]    GD037- Gender mainstreaming in development programmes and projects

This guide was produced to support the promotion of gender equality and gender mainstreaming in various development programmes and projects.The guide was drawn up on the basis of the EU’s structural fund programmes, but is suitable for everyone involved in the planning, implementation and assessment of various development programmes and projects.


[.pdf]    GD040- The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity

This paper is concerned with the instrumental impact of countries failing to meet theMillennium Development Goal (MDG) on gender equality. The prospect of countries failing to meet the MDG is not just a theoretical  possibility but, given our assessment of current trends, a likely outcome for some 45 countries for which data exist. The purpose of the paper is therefore to estimate to what extent these countries will suffer losses in terms of economic growth, as well as foregone reductions in fertility, child mortality, and undernutrition. Conversely, it will allow countries to assess the potential gains from adopting policies that bring them closer to meeting the goal.


[.pdf]    GD041- Gender Analysis Tools - Tamarack

GENDER ANALYSIS is a tool for examining the differences between the roles that women and men play, the different levels of power they hold, their differing needs, constraints and opportunities, and the impact of these  differences on their lives.


[.pdf]    GD048- Gender Training Toolkit - World Vision International

The aim of this Gender Training Toolkit is the systematic integration of gender equality sensitivity, awareness and analysis into World Vision ministry in every area of its work. The Gender Training Toolkit is designed as a  resource for staff with training and facilitation skills to use in the training of new trainers and local and  regional leaders.This second edition of the Gender Training Toolkit consists of eight modules, with more than 30  individual training sessions.This second edition of the Gender Training Toolkit is a resource for the World Vision Partnership, as well as for any sister agencies who may wish to adapt from these pages.


[.pdf]    GD052- Gender Equality, Poverty Eradication and the Millenium Development Goals - UNESCAP

This manuscript has been issued by the Emerging Social Issues Division of ESCAP. It is part of a series of publications previously known as the Women in Development Discussion Paper Series.This paper was delivered  by Professor Naila Kabeer, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, as a keynote presentation for the first session of the Committee on Emerging Social Issues, Bangkok, 4 September 2003 Figures have been supplemented by World Bank sources


[.pdf]    GD053- Gender and the MDGs - Overseas Development Institute

Key points of this ODI Briefing Paper: 1) Policy dialogue on the MDGs needs to recognise that the gender dynamics of power, poverty, vulnerability and care link all the goals; 2) The achievement of the MDGs requires a coordinated policy approach that is  sensitive to gender-specific discrimination and risks 3) Gender-sensitive social protection policies offer an opportunity to link gender equality and the MDGs.


[.pdf]    GD054- Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in the Asia-Pacific - UNESCAP

This study aims to contribute to transforming the MDGs to fulfill the aspiration of CEDAW and BPfA (Beijing Platform for Action) by developing complementary indicators based on the linkages the MDGs have with CEDAW as well as with BPfA. T  The scope of work in the study includes: 1) reviewing the progress made towards the MDGs in the ESCAP region in relation to gender equality and women’s  empowerment (Chapter II), 2) providing a rationale for linking MDGs with CEDAW and BPfA (Chapter III), 3) recommending targets and indicators that can supplement existing MDG targets and indicators for the  promotion of gender equality (Chapter IV), and searching for country good practices for aligning MDGs with BPfA and CEDAW, especially by utilizing targets, indicators and other monitoring and assessment tools  (Chapter V).


[.pdf]    GD061- Gender Equality in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The Rio + 20 Conference ‘The Future We Want’ took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012. It was organized to take stock of what results have been achieved since the original United National Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), otherwise referred to as the Earth Summit, in 1992, and to address present and future challenges that are undermining sustainable development. Twenty years ago, the Earth  Summit and its outcome document, Agenda 21, fueled an optimism that led to a decade of UN conferences, including the UN Beijing Conference on Women in 1995, and world summits of the 1990’s. In 2000, governments reaffirmed their commitment to sustainable development by adopting the Millennium Declaration in 2000 and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were important indicators and benchmarks to  achieve sustainable development goals. It would be fantastic to state collectively that as a result of these efforts and others at the national and regional levels, sustainable development has moved in a positive direction.  Instead, it is widely recognized that we are very far away from where we need to be.


[.pdf]    GD090- Tackling the root causes of gender inequalities in the post-2015 development agenda

The OECD Development Centre’s Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), launched in 2009, was the first attempt to capture, quantify and measure some of the social institutions that discriminate against women and  girls. The 2012 SIGI scores countries on 14 variables that are grouped into five sub-indices: Discriminatory Family Code, Restricted Physical Integrity, Son Bias, Restricted Civil Liberties and Restricted Resources and  Entitlements. This paper presents the SIGI as a framework to understand and capture discriminatory social institutions as the root causes of gender inequality. Statistical association tests show that the index provides unique  information on gender inequality, in comparison to other gender indices.i Further, regression analysis shows that higher levels of underlying discrimination against women is related to poor development outcomes such as  women’s employment, education attainment and child health, even when controlling for factors such as the level of economic development and urbanisation. These findings have clear implications for the post-2015  development agenda: any new framework should take a holistic approach to measuring gender inequality and should specifically address discriminatory social institutions.


[.pdf]    GD095- How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development - Cross-Country Evidence

This paper assumes that gender inequality hinders economic and human development: a one standard deviation change in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) will increase long term income per capita by 9.1% and the Human Development Index (HDI) by 4%. Gender inequality may be a explanation of economic development di erences : 16% of the long term income di erence between South Asia and East Asia & Paci c can be accounted for  by the di erence in gender inequality. Moreover, this paper provides evidence of a vicious circle between gender inequality and long term income. The multi-dimensional concept of gender inequality is measured by a  composite index with endogenous weightings: the Gender Inequality Index (GII). To correct endogeneity and simultaneity problems, the two-stage and three-stage least square methods are used separately. In this way, the  steady state per capita income and the human development levels are estimated for 109 developing countries.


[.pdf]    GD021-Guidelines on Gender Mainstreaming in Alternative Development - UNDCP

The guidelines are based on the outcome of gender analysis and lessons learned of the Alternative Development projects visited and the workshop held in Vienna in January 2000.


[.pdf]    GD150- CIDA's Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators

This Guide explains why gender-sensitive indicators are useful tools for measuring the results of CIDA's development initiatives. It concentrates in particular on  projects with an end-user focus, and shows how gender-sensitive indicators can and should be used in both gender integrated and WID-specific projects, and in  combination with other evaluation techniques. After introducing concepts, the Guide reviews the techniques of choosing and using indicators at the project level, so  that CIDA staff can utilize them as an instrument of results-based management.


[.pdf]    GD006-Household Decisions, Gender, and Development - IFPRI

This book synthesizes IFPRI’s research on intrahousehold allocation since the publication of Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Models, Methods, and Policy, edited by Lawrence Haddad, John Hoddinott, and Harold Alderman, in 1997.


[.pdf]    GD075- Gender Inequality and Social Development

This project  examines economic theory, literature, and empirical trends with respect to gender inequality and its effect on socioeconomic development, and determine if this policy focus on gender is necessary  for successful socioeconomic development.


[.pdf]    GD043- Making a difference - Gender and participatory development - Eldis

The study begins by exploring some of the dimensions of "participation" and "gender" in development. It goes on to draw on examples of  "participatory" projects from Africa and Asia to analyse some of the obstacles and  opportunities for women's participation and for addressing gender issues. Some of the most trenchant critiques of the neglect of gender issues and the silencing of women's voices in participatory projects and policy-related work focus on the practice of Participatory Rural Apraisal (PRA) (see, for example, Moose 1995; Jackson 1996; Guijt and Kaul Shah 1998).


[.pdf]    GD045- Reflections on Gender and Participatory Development - K4Health

This article, I explore some of the tensions, contradictions and complementarities between ‘‘gender-aware’’ and ‘‘participatory’’ approaches to development. I suggest that making a difference may come to depend on challenging embedded assumptions about gender and power, and on making new alliances out of old divisions, in order to build more inclusive, transformatory practice.


On Norms and Agency: Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

Authors: Ana María Muñoz Boudet; Patti Petesch; Carolyn Turk

Published: April 2013 -

Pages: 228

Series: Directions in Development


Opening Doors : Gender Equality and Development in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: The World Bank

Published: February 2013

Pages: 206

Series: MENA Development Report


Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications

Journal title: >World Bank Research Observer, volume 28, issue 1

Authors: Oriana Bandiera; Ashwini Natraj

Pages: 20


Equality for Women
Where Do We Stand?

Editors: Mayra Buvinic; Andrew R. Morrison; Mirja Sjoblom; A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah

Published: September 2008

Pages: 353


The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America

Authors: Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Gignoux, Jeremie

Published: July 2008

Pages: 55


Institutional Pathways to Equity
Addressing Inequality Traps

Editors: Michael Walton; Anthony J. Bebbington; Anis A. Dani; Arjan de Haan

Published: April 2008

Pages: 255


Attitudes To Equality: The "Socialist Legacy" Revisited

Authors: Murthi, Mamta; Tiongson, Erwin R.

Published: February 2008

Pages: 28






[.pdf]    GD010-Gender and Development Glossary - IPS Inter Press Service

The production and publication of this third edition of the IPS-Inter Press Service Gender and Development Glossary was undertaken under ‘Communicating for Change’, an IPS project (2009-2011) fi nanced through the Dutch Ministry’s MDG-3 Fund: Investing in Equality.


[.pdf]    GD018-Glossary of Gender and Development Terms - European Commission

Toolkit on mainstreaming gender equality in EC development cooperation.


[.pdf]    GD077- Glossary of Gender-related Terms - PeaceWomen

This glossary aims to contribute towards a general and clearer understanding of some of the frequently used terms and concepts in relation to gender. It is addressed to policymakers, researchers, students and/or anyone  interested in such issues.




Sunrise House - Addiction Demographics - Women

Women are confronted with unique challenges regarding mental health, addiction and stigmas that often act as a barrier to receiving the treatment and help they need. While there are many unique addiction and mental health resources available for women, none of them are comprehensive and specifically tailored to addiction among women. After research across the resources available on the web, the AAC team noticed the absence of a centralized resource designed to help understand the basics of mental health, alcohol use and addiction within this demographic and offer guidance on navigating support systems. They decided to fill this gap of knowledge.This page summarizes available governmental, organizational and other resources and makes them easily accessible to those searching for assistance. It includes dozens of the latest studies and external resources for women seeking information and assistance.


The Global HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)

Authors: Chris Beyrer; Andrea L. Wirtz; Damian Walker; Benjamin Johns; Frangiscos Sifakis; Stefan D. Baral

Published: May 2011

Pages: 400


Empowering women: The effect of women's decision-making power on reproductive health services uptake: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Xiaohui Hou; Ning Ma

Published: January 2011

Pages: 22


A New Approach To Producing Geographic Profiles Of Hiv Prevalence
An Application To Malawi

Authors: Peter Lanjouw; Oleksiy Ivaschenko

Published: February 2010

Pages: 35


Mental Health In The Aftermath Of Conflict

Authors: Quy-Toan Do; Lakshmi Iyer

Published: November 2009

Pages: 28


Comparing Condom Use With Different Types Of Partners
Evidence From National HIV Surveys In Africa

Authors: Damien de Walque; Rachel Kline

Published: November 2009

Pages: 37


Demographic And Socioeconomic Patterns Of HIV/AIDS Prevalence In Africa

Authors: Kathleen Beegle; Damien de Walque

Published: October 2009

Pages: 32


Agent Orange And The Prevalence Of Cancer Among The Vietnamese Population 30 Years After The End Of The Vietnam War

Author: Do, Quy-Toan

Published: September 2009

Pages: 30


Courage and Hope
Stories from Teachers Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Donald Bundy; David Aduda; Alice Woolnough; Lesley Drake; Stella Manda

Published: August 2009

Pages: 87


The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape
Selected Papers for The World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011

Editors: Elizabeth L. Lule; Richard M. Seifman; Antonio C. David

Published: June 2009

Pages: 474


Transactional Sex As A Response To Risk In Western Kenya

Authors: Robinson, Jonathan; Yeh, Ethan

Published: March 2009

Pages: 44


Cross-Border Purchases Of Health Services
A Case Study On Austria And Hungary

Author: Andreas J. Obermaier

Published: February 2009

Pages: 31


HIV and AIDS in South Asia
An Economic Development Risk

Editors: Markus Haacker; Mariam Claeson

Published: February 2009

Pages: 244


Month Of Birth And Children's Health In India

Authors: Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy

Published: January 2009

Pages: 40


Progress In Participation In Tertiary Education In India From 1983 To 2004

Authors: Azam, Mehtabul; Blom, Andreas

Published: December 2008

Pages: 47


Can Biological Factors Like Hepatitis B Explain the Bulk of Gender Imbalance in China? A Review of the Evidence

Journal title: World Bank Research Observer, volume 23, issue 2

Author: Gupta, Monica Das

Pages: 17


HIV Pandemic, Medical Brain Drain, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 22, issue 2

Authors: Bhargava, Alok; Docquier, Frédéric

Pages: 22


Use Of Modern Medical Care For Pregnancy And Childbirth Care: Does Female Schooling Matter?

Author: Somanathan, Aparnaa

Published: May 2008

Pages: 68


A Review of Health Sector Aid Financing to Somalia

Author: World Bank

Editors: Emanuele Capobianco; Veni Naidu

Published: May 2008

Pages: 50


The World Bank's Commitment to HIV/AIDS in Africa
Our Agenda for Action, 2007-2011

Author: World Bank

Published: March 2008

Pages: 125


Does Hepatitis B Infection Or Son Preference Explain The Bulk Of Gender Imbalance In China? : A Review Of The Evidence

Author: Das Gupta, Monica

Published: February 2008

Pages: 19


The Determinants Of HIV Infection And Related Sexual Behaviors : Evidence From Lesotho

Authors: Corno, Lucia; de Walque, Damien

Published: December 2007

Pages: 46


The Africa Multi-Country AIDS Program 2000-2006 : Results of the World Bank's Response to a Development Crisis

Author: World Bank

Published: May 2007

Pages: 173


Corporate Responses to HIV/AIDS: Case Studies from India

Author: World Bank

Published: June 2007

Pages: 89



...Human Rights



[.pdf]    GD069- The Integration of Gender and Human Rights into the Post-2015 Development Framework

This report is based on the discussion that took place at the “Post-2015 Expert Group Meeting” held at the Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL) from December 13-14, 2012. This meeting was convened to  try to integrate issues of gender and human rights into the development of a post-2015 framework for social and economic development that is applicable to all countries. This report seeks to integrate macroeconomics,  human rights, and gender into an analytical framework. To achieve this, specific focus is given to fiveve areas of importance to the current post-2015 discourse: (i) gender equality and the realization of women’s rights; (ii)  inequality, both within and between countries; (iii) employment and the right to decent work; (iv) creation of an enabling macroeconomic environment for the realization of economic and social rights; and (v) governance for  human rights at global and national levels.


[.pdf]    GD084- Gender equality and extension of women rights in Russia in the context of the Millenium Development Goals - UNDP

The report aims to analyse the situation in Russia with regard to different forms of gender inequality, and to identify key policy areas towards achievement of the third Millennium Goal with account to specific Russian context, namely: 1) To identify Russian peculiarities with regard to attainment of gender equality; 2) To identify primary trends and gender inequality mechanisms in economy. 3) To analyse the impact of economic gender inequality on different status of men and women in social and political areas. 4) To propose policy guidelines towards achieving gender equality and expansion of women’s opportunities and rights.


[.pdf]  GD214- Integrating Human Rights and Gender Equality in Evaluation ‐ Towards UNEG Guidance

The Handbook was developed by the UNEG Human Rights and Gender Equality (HR & GE) Task Force and provides guidance and options on how to integrate HR & GE dimensions in evaluation. It was developed in response to a noted gap in evaluation guidance in general and the UN system-wide mandates to integrate HR & GE in all areas of work, including evaluation. By doing so, the UN system will be better able to learn lessons, hold key stakeholders accountable for results, and in turn improve policies and programming, which will contribute to the realization of HR & GE and meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other UN mandates. 3. This Handbook integrates guidance on the two concepts of “human rights” and “gender equality” to take advantage of the synergies and overlap between these mutually reinforcing concepts, including the understanding that gender equality is both a human right, but also a dimension of development in its own right. Also, human rights are inclusive of, but not limited to, gender related human rights.

[.pdf]  GD215- Human rights and gender equality in health sector strategies - how to assess policy coherence

Human Rights and Gender Equality in Health Sector Strategies: how to assess policy coherence is designed to support countries as they design and implement national health sector
strategies in compliance with obligations and commitments. The tool focuses on practical options and poses critical questions for policy-makers to identify gaps and opportunities in the review or reform of health sector strategies as well as other sectoral initiatives. It is expected that using this tool will generate a national multi-stakeholder process and a cross-disciplinary dialogue to address human rights and gender equality in health sector activities. The tool is intended for use by various actors involved in health planning and policy making,
implementation or monitoring of health sector strategies. These include (but are not limited to) ministries of health and other sectors, national human rights institutions, development partners and civil society organizations. The tool provides support, as opposed to a set of detailed guidelines, to assess health sector strategies. It is not a manual on human rights or gender equality, but it does provide users with references to other publications and materials of a more conceptual and normative nature. The tool aims to operationalize a human rights-based approach and gender mainstreaming through their practical application in policy assessments.


[.pdf]  GD216- Gender, the Millennium Development Goals, and Human

The year 2005 is a strategic window for women’s human rights advocacy because in this year the Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA) and the Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will be reviewed. This paper offers the GAD Network a way to think about the opportunities offered by these coinciding reviews and outlines an advocacy agenda for participation in the reviews at an international level. This paper argues that achievement of the MDGs is both an indication of and a necessity for the realization of human rights, because the MDGs correspond to states’ existing human rights obligations found in the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Setting the MDGs back within a human rights framework provides analytical and practical tools towards challenging the prevailing neo-liberal, economic growth-driven model of development.


[.pdf]  GD217- The Gender Dimension of Human Rights A Development Perspective

In today’s world, institutions at the national, regional, and international level work together to ensure that human rights are respected. International human rights organizations make independent assessments of human rights conditions and national courts and regional organizations use international human rights treaties to guide their own decision-making. I will discuss how the Inter-American System fits in this interlocking domestic, regional, and international framework. The regional system’s goals are similar to those of the international system. It provides a mechanism to address the particular problems faced by the states of the region. It provides more actual remedies for victims of violations of human rights norms than the international system, through adjudication of individual claims, the issuance of advisory opinions, and the use of in loco visits.

[.pdf]  GD218- Human Rights Advocacy on Gender Issues - Challenges and Opportunities

Recent years have seen notable progress on issues of gender and human rights in standard-setting and to some extent application of those standards through international and domestic legislation and jurisprudence, and in institutional programming and development. Some international and regional human rights bodies now go beyond just including ‘women’ in a list of ‘vulnerable’ groups, and have begun to incorporate women’s experiences and perspectives into recommendations for structural changes needed to bring about full enjoyment of human rights by women and girls. In addition, recent years have seen the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people being taken up beyond the first human rights bodies that addressed them, and developments have taken place in standard-setting. Despite this progress, many challenges remain. Violence against women continues at a staggering rate. Gender-based discrimination persists in the workplace, housing, education, disaster relief, health care, and countless other areas. Access to justice continues to be hindered by a range of obstacles. Religion, tradition, and culture continue to be used as a shield for violating women’s rights. Same-sex conduct is still criminalized in scores of countries, and it carries the death penalty in seven states. The traditional human rights law paradigm, with its focus on the state, may be obsolete in dealing with human rights abuses by such diverse non-state actors as powerful militias and global corporations. This article highlights just a few opportunities and challenges to come for international human rights advocacy on gender issues.


[.pdf]  GD220- Gender and International Human Rigts Law

International developments gave rise to a corresponding emphasis on women’s rights at the regional level. In 1998, the Organisation of African States (now the African Union) appointed a Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women to give special attention to women’s rights in Africa. In 2003, after years of discussion and preparation, the African Union adopted a Protocol to the African Charter for Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has followed suit, with the adoption of a Declaration of Gender and Development in 1997, supplemented in 1998 by an Addendum on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and Children. The SADC documents are not legally binding, however. SADC has also established a series of structures to facilitate the mainstreaming of gender into regional and national policies. One specific gender issue which has been received special emphasis at the international and regional level is violence against women. This topic is singled out for attention here because it is one of Namibia’s foremost human rights problems. Knowledge of relevant international and regional agreements on gender is important in Namibia, because (as explained in more detail below) the Namibian Constitution gives them the force of law in Namibia once the government has agreed to them. The remainder of this booklet will looks at these developments in more detail. The booklet does not cover every international agreement relevant to gender, but rather focuses on key agreements. The texts of these key international agreements and other official documents are printed on coloured paper for easier reference.


[.pdf]  GD221- Integrating a Human Rights-Based and Gender Equality Approach into National Strategic Plans on HIV - Workshop Report

In the effort to support countries to scale up and integrate interventions and programs on human rights and gender equality, UNAIDS initiated a project aiming at supporting 30 countries in three regions that are developing new or reviewing current national HIV strategic plans in 2011. Its aim was to comprehensively integrate key legal and human rights national strategic plans. The Project for the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) Region was expanded to include the integration of gender equality and a focus on prevention. The expected outcome of this initiative was to achieve the meaningful inclusion of human rights and gender equality in the situational and response analyses, programmatic activities, budgets, and monitoring frameworks of NSPs.The ESA Workshop was held in Johannesburg from the 20th to the 23rd September.


[.pdf]  GD225- Towards the Realization of Women's Rights and Gender Equality Post 2015 Sustainable Development-1

This summary report is the culmination of a two-day strategic meeting, “Towards the Realization of Women’s Rights and Gender Equality: Post 2015 Sustainable Development,” which took place in Florham Park, New Jersey from June 11-12, 2013. The meeting was organized to identify, analyze, and strategize about the linkages between the realization of women’s rights and gender equality and macroeconomic policy within the context of the post 2015 sustainable development framework and processes. The Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL), with the support of the Ford Foundation, convened women’s rights advocates, economic and social rights experts, and human rights lawyers working from a feminist perspective. The consultations were guided by the following objectives: to (i) identify priorities for the realization of women’s rights and gender equality within the context of macroeconomic policy; (ii) select and develop key messages for selected priorities; (iii) brainstorm strategies for selected priorities; and (vi) discuss next steps. This summary report intends to highlight key points from the meeting and share strategies for moving forward.


[.pdf]  GD226- ABC of women workers’ rights and gender equality

The ILO considers it extremely important to increase knowledge of the legal aspects of gender equality in the world of work. While legal instruments for promoting gender equality and protecting women workers’ rights are steadily expanding in number and being improved at both national and international levels, there is still a gap between the rights set out in national and international standards and their implementation in real situations. Even the best legal provisions cannot be of much use if they are not known and not put into practice. People need knowledge about legal rights and the machinery to enforce them if they are to combat discrimination and fight for a fair balance of opportunity, treatment, pay and representation between men and women in all areas of paid and unpaid employment and in work-related decision-making. However, many workers around the world are only hazily aware or even unaware of their rights, and this is perhaps the greatest obstacle to their exercising those rights. This practical guide is intended to bridge that knowledge gap. Arranged alphabetically by topic, it focuses primarily on States’ and employers’ obligations and workers’ rights as regards equality between men and women, enshrined in the ILO’s body of international labour standards (Conventions and Recommendations). It also refers to other relevant developments and trends in international law (for example, United Nations instruments), supranational law (for instance, European Community directives), and national legislation and practice. In addition, the guide includes explanations of a number of political, legal and socio-economic terms in common use and especially relevant to women workers and gender equality.


[.pdf]  GD228- Women's Rights & Gender Equality, the New Aid Environment and Civil Society Organisations

The report highlights some of the key questions emerging for civil society around the way the new aid systems promote, marginalise or exclude gender equality and women’s rights issues, as well as developing themes for future targeted research. The report reflects the voices of organisations working for gender equality and women’s rights from around the world. It conveys the diversity and complexity of the issues around the new aid modalities and how these differ across countries and continents; it also shows some of the unintended consequences of new aid modalities. Above all, it reveals that many women’s organisations and those focused on challenging gender inequality feel threatened as the focus of funding moves in the direction of larger grants, tighter, short term targets, demonstrable and ‘scaled up’ results, and intensive administration.


[.pdf]  GD229- Gender equality, women's rights and access to energy services An inspiration paper in the run - up to Rio+20

This study aims to increase international attention on the gender equality dimensions of energy access in the run-up to Rio+20 and contribute to the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative and its goal of ensuring universal access to modern energy services by 2030. It conceptualizes gender and energy in development from a gender and rights perspective and presents an analysis of energy system governance at household, national and global levels. The study primarily focuses on experience emerging from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, given the severity of energy poverty in those regions.


[.pdf]  GD230- Gender Equality and Aid Effectiveness - The mobilisation of gender equality and women’s rights organisations towards Accra

In the process of building the aid effectiveness agenda, a huge effort was made to collectively build a strong coalition of women’s rights organisations, which could be a vocal advocate in the process and make the voices of women, stand out as part of the broader coalition among civil society organisations. This objective was definitely achieved. The alliance between WIDE, AWID, DAWN, FEMNET, IGTN, NETRIGHT and WILDAF was strong and fruitful, as was the support of gender advocates from the bilateral and multilateral agencies and UNIFEM.This publication aims to document this crucial and key alliance among women’s rights organisations around the aid effectiveness agenda by analysing the different processes and actions that took place, the strengths and weaknesses found during the process, as well as providing lessons for the challenges of the future. There is still so much work to do together to place gender equality and women’s rights at the centre of the new global economic and development architecture, and we hope this publication is useful for all women’s rights organisations and gender equality advocates committed to this goal.


Statistics on Discrimination of Women - Human Rights


...Information and Communication Technology (ICT)



[.pdf]    GD072- Gender Issues in ICT Policy in Developing Countries

Engendering ICT policy is an area of great importance, perhaps the most important in securing the benefits of the information age for girls and women. If gender issues are not articulated in ICT policy, it is unlikely that girls  and women will reap the benefits of the information age. Decades of experience have shown that without explicit attention to gender in policy, gender issues are not considered in implementation. Despite the views of many  government policy makers that a well thought out general policy benefits all, there is no such thing as a genderblind or gender-neutral ICT policy.1 Governments also say that the fact that they already have a gender equality  policy obviates the need to spell out gender issues in every sectoral policy. On the contrary, there is much evidence to show that “policy-making in technological fields often ignores the needs, requirements, and aspirations  of women unless gender analysis is included” (Marcelle 2000, 39). Without specific attention and action, the benefits do not accrue equitably to men and women, and it is inevitably women who are left


[.pdf]    GD082- Mobile Technology, Gender and Development in Africa, India and Bangladesh

One of the most serious and far-reaching barriers to the eradication of poverty is gender inequality. Increased gender inequalities, even in the short-run, are having long-term consequences for economic growth and human  development (Costa & Silva 2008, 9). Thus it is not surprising that one of the key target objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment. Mobile-based  services and systems can be a partial solution to poverty alleviation.


[.pdf]    GD089- Digital gender divide or technologically empowered women in developing countries

The discussion about women’s access to and use of digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing countries has been inconclusive so far. Some claim that women are rather technophobic and  that men are much better users of digital tools, while others argue that women enthusiastically embrace digital communication. This article puts this question to an empirical test. It analyzes data sets from 12 Latin American  and 13 African countries from 2005-08.


Information and Communication Technologies for Women's Socio-Economic Empowerment

Authors: Samia Melhem; Claudia Morell; Nidhi Tandon

Published: October 2009

Pages: 86





How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development ?

Author: Varun Gauri

Published: November 2009

Pages: 29


Public Interest Litigation In India
Overreaching Or Underachieving ?

Author: Varun Gauri

Published: November 2009

Pages: 25

Exiting A Lawless State

Authors: Hoff, Karla; Stiglitz, Joseph E.

Published: February 2008

Pages: 38


Judiciary-Led Reforms in Singapore: "Framework, Strategies, and Lessons"

Author: Waleed Haider Malik

Published: February 2007

Pages: 115





The Association Between Remarriage And HIV Infection
Evidence From National HIV Surveys In Africa

Authors: Damien de Walque; Rachel Kline

Published: November 2009

Pages: 26


Adult Mortality And Children's Transition Into Marriage

Authors: Beegle, Kathleen; Krutikova, Sofya

Published: February 2007

Pages: 21


Watta Satta : Bride Exchange And Women's Welfare In Rural Pakistan

Authors: Jacoby, Hanan G.; Mansuri, Ghazala

Published: February 2007

Pages: 24


...Men and Boys



[.pdf]    GD023-Engaging men in women's issues - Women for Women International

This issue of Critical Half (bi-annual journal of Women for Women International) explores how men can be engaged to support and promote women’s rights and thus help to establish gender equitable societies. The topics covered include men’s perceptions of gender roles; men’s opinions of “women’s empowerment”; factors and incentives that influence men’s receptiveness to social, political, and economic programs for women;  obstacles faced by men who wish to implement change in their communities; and proven strategies to create partnerships with men to positively transform gender relations.


[.pdf]    GD068- Role of Men and Boys in Promoting Gender Equality - APPEAL

While the concept of gender equality is not new, what is relatively new is the concerted effort to revisit men’s roles and identities in order to significantly increase men’s involvement in working towards gender-equal  societies. This policy brief aims to present key rationales, identify principal challenges, and recommend actionable strategies for engaging boys and men3 in efforts to achieve gender equality. The goal of this brief is to  provide policy makers, gender-related practitioners, business people and civil society leaders with a framework for developing strategies, implementing programmes, and evaluating progress in gender equality efforts that  engage men in all spheres of life.





Impacts of international migration and remittances on child outcomes and labor supply in Indonesia: How does gender matter?

Authors: Trang Nguyen; Ririn Purnamasari

Published: March 2011

Pages: 37


International Migration, Transfers Of Norms And Home Country Fertility

Authors: Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Schiff, Maurice

Published: May 2009

Pages: 44

Type: Working paper

Number: 4925


International Migration And Gender Differentials In The Home Labor Market

Authors: Mendola, Mariapia; Carletto, Gero

Published: May 2009

Pages: 39


Migration And Economic Mobility In Tanzania

Authors: Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Dercon, Stefan

Published: December 2008

Pages: 52


The Malaysia-Indonesia Remittance Corridor
Making Formal Transfers the Best Option for Women and Undocumented Migrants

Authors: Raul Hernandez-Coss; Gillian Brown; Chitrawati Buchori; Isaku Endo; Emiko Todoroki; Tita Naovalitha; Wameek Noor; Cynthia Mar

Published: June 2008

Pages: 97


Determinants Of Remittances: Recent Evidence Using Data On Internal Migrants In Vietnam

Authors: Niimi, Yoko; Pham, Thai Hung; Reilly, Barry

Published: April 2008

Pages: 38


The International Migration of Women

Author: World Bank

Editors: Maurice Schiff; Andrew R. Morrison; Mirja Sjoblom

Published: November 2007

Pages: 219


Self-Selection Patterns In Mexico-U.S. Migration : The Role Of Migration Networks

Authors: McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

Published: January 2007

Pages: 28






[.pdf]    GD019-Gender Manual - A Practical Guide for Development Policy Makers and Pratictioners - DFID

This gender manual is designed to help non-gender specialists in recognising and addressing gender issues in their work. The intention is to demystify gender, make the concept and practice of gender “mainstreaming”  accessible to a wide audience, and clarify when to call in specialist help. Whilst designed for DFID staff and partner organisations, the manual should provide useful information and guidance for staff from any government  or civil society.


[.pdf]    GD022-Topic Guide on Gender

This guide introduces some of the best recent literature on a range of gender issues and highlights major critical debates. It is intended primarily as a reference for policymakers and highlights practical guidance, lessons  learned and case studies. New publications and emerging issues will be regularly incorporated.


[.pdf]    GD011-Protocol on Gender and Development (2008) - SADC

A protocol signed by countries of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)


[.pdf]    GD051- Gender equality and empowerment of women - Austrian Development Cooperation

The gender policy of Austrian Development Cooperation (ADC) concentrates on the core areas of capabilities, opportunities and personal security in support of the main objectives of poverty reduction, peacekeeping and  conflict prevention. This approach is implemented throughout all ADC programmes. It commits ADC in both bilateral and multilateral organisations and also in dialogue with NGOs to adopt a consistent position and to  significantly enhance the development of capacities as part of a gender policy.A policy designed to achieve gender equality and empowerment of women requires a considerable effort, in which ADC would like to be  involved. This paper provides a conceptual and strategic basis for this involvement.


[.pdf]    GD083- Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy - USAID

The goal of this USAID's policy is to improve the lives of citizens around the world by advancing equality between females and males, and empowering women and girls to participate fully in and benefit from the development of their societies. It will be addressed through integration of gender equality and female empowerment throughout the Agency’s Program Cycle and related processes: in strategic planning,  project design and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. This integrated approach positions the Agency to address gender gaps and the constraints that hold women back.

[.pdf]    GD093- Plan of Action for Gender-sensitive Parliaments - Inter-Parliamentary Union

This Plan of Action is designed to support parliaments in their efforts to become more gender-sensitive. It presents a broad range of strategies in seven action areas that can be implemented by all parliaments, irrespective of  the number of women members. Parliaments are called upon to take ownership of this Plan of Action and to implement any or all of the Plan’s strategies at the national level by setting concrete objectives, actions and  deadlines suited to their national context. They are also called upon to regularly monitor and evaluate their progress towards the goal of gender sensitivity. A gender-sensitive parliament responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, operations, methods and work.


[.pdf]    GD094- Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Issues in Development - SIDA

This report is the outcome of a study of Swedish policy and administration of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) issues (including intersex issues) in international development cooperation. Findings showed that the level of knowledge and understanding among Sida and Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) staff on LGBT and intersex issues is uneven and in many cases inadequate. The same is true when it comes to awareness  of the linkages between gender identity, sexuality on the one hand, and on the other hand core development issues such as poverty reduction, the protection and exercise of human rights and combating gender-based  violence. The study shows that there is a lack of explicit mentioning of LGBT issues in Swedish policy and strategy documents, and that in programmes with Swedish support, LGBT issues are not dealt with in a consistent  manner, or at all. On policy level the exception is the Swedish Government Communication on Human Rights in Foreign Policy, where LGBT issues are dealt with as a minority rights issue alongside with indigenous people’s rights and rights of persons with disabilities. Intersex issues are not mentioned in any official documents. There are no directives to ensure that Swedish supported interventions do not advocate in favour of, or tolerate, LGBT discrimination.


Against Wind and Tides - A Review of the Status of Women and Gender Equality in the Arab Region

Twenty years after the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action on gender equality and women's empowerment, this review of its implementation could not be more timely. Although much has been achieved in recent years to advance the rights of women and girls in the Arab region, inequalities persist at many levels, often perpetuated by law. In some countries, conflict has set back progress made and threatens the very security of women and girls. Moreover, the region has failed to put into effect one of the basic principles of the Beijing Platform: the full and equal participation of women in decision-making.This study, it is hoped, will encourage Governments and other concerned parties to redouble their commitment to the vision of the Beijing Declaration. It provides a sound foundation on which to build future development and gender equality strategies.

...Results-Based Management  (RBM)
Home - WIDNET G&D Good & Best Practices BudgetingChange - Development Cooperation - Financing - Human Resources - Management Cycle (Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning) - Performance - Public Sector/Service - Results-Based Management (General)


[.pdf]   RBM062- Results-Based Budgeting: Objectives, Expected Results and Performance Indicators
Presentation by Virginie Besrest. 2012. Council of Europe. 8 pages. (232 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM109- A Basic Model of Performance-Based Budgeting
Marc Robinson and Duncan Last. 12 pages. 2009. (500 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM089- Systems of Management Control and Results-Based Budgeting: The Chilean Experience
GOVERNMENT OF CHILE MINISTRY OF FINANCE National Budget Office. 83 pages. 2003. (270 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM111- About Results-Based Budgeting. Government Performance.
Caroline Office of State Budget and Management (OSBM). 2007. 3 pages. (40 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM112- “Results-Based Budgeting” from Performance Measurement: Getting Results.
The Urban Institute Press. 2006. 37 pages. (149 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM113- Implementing Results-based budgeting in the Ministry of Defense of Peru.
Natalie J. Webb. 2012. 22 pages. (248 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM114- Performance-based Budgeting. Training Manual.
Regional Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR). 2011. 152 pages. (895 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM115- Results-based budgeting: Delivering results responsibly. PWC. 2013. 4 pages. (200 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM116- Results-Orientated Budget Practice in OECD Countries.
Aidan Rose, Department of Law, Governance and International Relations London Metropolitan University. 2003. 76 pages. (225 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM117- Guide to Performance-based Budgeting.
Dr B. Navin. Centre for Good Governance. CGG Collected Working Papers: 2003 — Volume 2. 2003. 15 pages. (3.4 MB).

Strasbourg, 25 September. Notes from Ian C. Davies. Council of Europe. 2012. 7 pages.(62 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM119- Results-Based Budgeting .... Breaking the trade-off between price and performance through public sector innovation.
STEEVES ADVISORY Inc. 2012. 9 pages.(91 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM120- Development effectiveness and results-based budgeting
Papers presented during meetings of the Regional Policy Dialogue’s Public Policy Management and Transparency Network(5th: 2009: Brasilia, Brazil). IDB. 2009. 298 pages.(9.1 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM121- Performance-Based Budget Systems.

[.pdf]   RBM122- Performance Information in the Budget Process: Results of the OECD 2005 Questionnaire.
Teresa Curristine.
OECD JOURNAL ON BUDGETING, Volume 5 – No. 1. OECD. 2005. 46 pages.(289 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM123- Government Performance:Lessons and Challenges.
OECD JOURNAL ON BUDGETING Volume 5 – No. 1. Teresa Curristine. OECD. 2005. 26 pages.(300 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM124- The Effects of Results-Oriented Budgeting on Government Spending Patterns in Thailand.
Arwiphawee Srithongrung. International Public Management Review, Volume 10, Issue 1. 2009. 31 pages.(333 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM125- Performance-Based Budgeting: The Contribution of the Program Assessment Rating Tool.
PATRICK R. MULLEN. 2006. 10 pages.(103 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM126- Malaysia: Integrated Results-Based Management – the Malaysia Experience.
Koshy Thomas, Ministry of Finance, Malaysia. Sourcebook, Second Edition. 2007. 9 pages.(170 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM127- Performance-Based Budgeting:OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSIDERATIONS.
A SEIU Local 1000 report. 2010. 24 pages.(668 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM128- Performance-Based Budgeting:Concepts and Examples.
Research Report No. 302. Legislative Research Commission, Kentucky. 2002. 91 pages.(867 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM129- UNITED NATIONS Guide to results-based budgeting.
Version 1.1 (23 October 1998). 64 pages.(180 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM130- Results-based Budgeting under Modified Budgeting System
CoP-MfDR Annual Meeting. Koshy Thomas. Ministry of Finance, Malaysia 2009. 15 pages.(358 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM131- Anatomy of a Priority-Budget Process.
The Government Finance Officers Association. 26 pages. 2011. (313 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM132- Achieving Results Performance Budgeting in the Least Developed Countries.
246 pages. 2006. (2.77 MB).

Alan Probst, Prof. Steve Deller, UW-Madison and Prof. Craig Maher. Second Edition. Local Government Center. 68 pages. 2009.
(650 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM134- Performance-Based Budgeting: Interpretations and Best Practices. 2012 PPMRN Conference.
Neubrain LLC. 13 pages. 2012.(1.0 MB)

[.pdf]   RBM135- Performance-Based Budgeting: Beginning the Journey. School Budgeting for Hard Times.
19 pages. 2010.(255 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM136- Performance Based Accountability and Budgeting.
Paul Posner, George Mason University. 9 pages. 2010.(81 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM137- Performance Budgeting Models and Mechanisms.
Marc Robinson. 29 pages. 2007.(143 KB).

Jane L. Reisman, Ph.D., Bill Leon, Ph.D., RobRoy Erickson The Evaluation Forum Seattle, Washington. 114 pages. 2002. (754 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM139- Organizational Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF): A Guide to Results-Based Budgeting in the Philippines.
Department of Budget and Management Malacañang, Manila. 106 pages. 2012.(951 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM140- Budgeting for equity: Gender budget initiatives within a framework of performance oriented budgeting.
Sharp, Rhonda. UNIFEM. 94 pages. 2003.(2.2 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM142- A Bibliometric Model for Performance-Based Budgeting of Research Institutions
51 pages. 2008.(279 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM143- Better Budgeting for Better Results.Performance-based budgeting reforms can save Nevada taxpayers billions.
Geoffrey Lawrence. Nevada Policy Research Institute. 36 pages. 2011.(538 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM144- INNOVATIONS IN GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC SERVICE T. Performance-Based Budgeting In China: A Case Study Of Guangdong Meili Niu.
Assistant Prof. Sun Yat-Sen University, China; Alfred Ho Associate Prof., Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, USA; Jun Ma Prof., Sun Yat-Sen University, China. 23 pages. 2005.(139 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM145- Performance Incentives Based on Results.
Undersecretary Laura B. Pascua. Department of Budget and Management, Philippines. 24 pages. 2012.(1.62 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM145b- Suggested Framework for Implementation of Performance Budgeting in the Public Sector of Developing Countries. With special focus on Egypt.
Hassan A. G. Ouda, Ph.D, Department of Accounting & Financial Control, Faculty of Management Technology - German University In Cairo. 28 pages. 2011.(191 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM146- Manual for the application of gender budgeting within the Belgian federal administration.
Liesbeth De Wolf and Kim Vandekerckhove. 90 pages. 2011. (2.81 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM147- Integration of activity-based budgeting and activity-based management.
Tandung Huynh, Guangming Gong, Huyhanh Huynh. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences. 2013; 1(4): 181-187. 7 pages. 2011.(262 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM148- Best-practice budgeting.
IBM Canada. 7 pages. 2011.(159 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM149- INTEGRATED RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT – COUNTRY EXPERIENCES FROM ASIA & AFRICA. Koshy Thomas, Ministry of Finance, Malaysia. 7 pages. 2008.(88 KB).

Northern Ireland Assembly,Research and Library Services. Research Paper 06/10. 30 pages. 2010. (88 KB).


[.pdf]   RBM010- Managing for Change:Introducing the Art of Results Based Management.
Philip Cox, Chris Enns.PLAN:NET LIMITED. 2009, 38 pages (3.0 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM020- Theory of Change: A Practical Tool For Action, Results and Learning.
ANNIE E. CASEY FOUNDATION. 2004. 49 pages (820 KB).

Development Cooperation

Janet Vähämäki, Martin Schmidt, and Joakim Molander. 2011. 56 pages (706 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM002- United Nations Development Group Results-Based Management Handbook: Strengthening RBM harmonization for improved development results,
2010, 62 pages, (1.0 MB)

Discussion Paper (Ver. 5.0) Prepared for the Canadian International Development Agency, Performance Review Branch, for consideration by the DAC Working Party on Aid Effectiveness and Harmonisation.. 2003, 26 pages (758 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM005- Results-Based Management in the Development Co-Operation Agencies: A Review of Experience.
Backgound Paper. OECD. 2000. 158 pages,. (724 KB)

[.pdf]   RBM006- RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK: Harmonizing RBM concepts and approaches for improved development results at country level. UNDG.
2011, 68 pages (7.5 MB)

[.pdf]   RBM039- UN Results Based Management Seminar on Results Based Management and Performance Reporting – an Australian Perspective.
2004. 50 pages (361 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM044- Results Management in Norwegian Development Cooperation: A practical guide.
NORAD, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 36 pages. (1.2 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM049- MANAGING AID RELATIONSHIPS IN THE CONTEXT OF RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT: A case study of support to civil society - SIDA.
Anna Samuelsson. 2013. 58 pages. (580 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM050- Results-Based Management of Basic Research: Regional and Interregional Cooperation to Strengthen Basic Sciences in Developing Countries.
2009. 66 pages. (1.6 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM071- Evaluation Results-Based Approach in Finnish Development Cooperation.
110 pages. 2011. (7.6 M).

[.pdf]   RBM072- Results-based Monitoring Guidelines for Technical Cooperation.
41 pages. GIZ. 2008. (500 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM078- Danish Development Cooperation in a Results Perspective Danida's Framework for Managing for Development Results 2011-2014.
DANIDA. 29 pages. 2011. (800 KB)


[.pdf]   RBM092- Are Funding Decisions Based on Performance?.
A comparison of approaches as practiced by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and the World Bank’s Multi-Country AIDS Program for Africa in Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia. Center for Global Development. 56 pages. 2010. (811 KB).

KIT (ROYAL TROPICAL INSTITUTE) In collaboration with Cordaid and WHO. 57 pages. 2009. (627 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM082- Results-Based Financing for Health (RBF) Basic Economics of Results-Based Financing in Health.
William D. Savedoff. Social Insight. 18 pages. 2010. (453 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM094- An overview of research on the effects of results-based financing.
Report from Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services nr 16 –2008. Systematic Review. 79 pages. 2008. (342 KB).

Human Resources

Library and Archives Canada. 2009. 21 pages. (114 KB)

[.pdf]   RBM151- Best Practices and Performance-Based HR System in Korea.
Eun-Suk Lee,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; Seongsu Kim, Seoul National University Seoul, Korea. Seoul Journal of Business Volume 12, Number 1 (June 2006). 16 pages. (56 KB).

Esra NEMLİ ÇALIŞKAN, Associate Istanbul University, Faculty of Political Sciences Department of Business. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering 2010, Vol. 6 , No.2, pp. 100-116. 2010. 16 pages. (248 KB).

Management Cycle (Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning)

[.pdf]   RBM017- Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluating for Results.
UNDP. 2002. 152 pages (860 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM074- Planning and Managing for HIV/AIDS Results: A Handbook.
Global AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Team - GAMET World Bank Global HIV/AIDS Program2007. (3.7 MB).

DF]RBM007- Understanding Results Based Programme Planning and Management:Tools to Reinforce Good Programming Practice.
UNICEF. 2003, 26 pages (263 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM069- Strategic Planning and Scripture Use: Integration of Results Based Management and Conditions of Scripture Use.
CAROL JEAN GALLAGHER.2009. 42 pages.(238 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM015- Monitoring & Evaluation Guidelines.
United Nations World Food Programme Office of Evaluation. 23 pages (606 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM047- Ten Steps to a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation System: A Handbook for Development Practitioners.
Jody Zall Kusek Ray C. Rist.World Bank. 2004. 264 pages. (1.0 MB).

Strengthening Monitoring and Evaluation System (SMES) Project. 2009. 29 pages. (376 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM070- Results-based monitoring and evaluation for organizations working in agricultural development: A guide for practitioners.
International Livestock Research Institute. 74 pages. 2010. (400 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM077- A Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework to Determine Performance and Success of ESD in TVET: The Case of the Philippines.
Dr. Miriam Necesito, Prof. Romeo B. Santos, Ph.D., Mr. John Ian Fulgar. 11 pages. 2009. (1.1 MB)

[.pdf]   RBM106- Measuring Capacity Development. Combining the ‘Best of Two Worlds’ in Monitoring and Evaluation of Capacity Development.
David Watson. 12 pages. 2011. (113 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM011- Insider Insights: Building a Results-Based Management and Evaluation System In Colombia.
Maluel Fernando CAstro. World Bank. 2009, 54 pages (663 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM012- Results-Based Programming, Management and Monitoring (RBM) approach as applied at UNESCO: Guiding Principles.2011,
41 pages (644 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM019- Reporting on Outcomes: Setting Performance Expectations and Telling Performance Stories.
John Mayne. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. 2003. 24 pages (132 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM063- A framework for qualitatively evaluating management plans in a results-based perspective.
Rochet M.J., Trenkel V.M., Rice J.C. 2010. 15 pages. (122 KB).


[.pdf]   RBM023- Performance-Based Management.
Cathy Iles DHS Performance Measure Coordinator. Oregon Department of Human Services. 2011. 19 pages (319 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM034- PERFORMANCE-BASED MANAGEMENT: Eight Steps To Develop and Use Information Technology Performance Measures Effectively.
General Services Administration Office of Governmentwide Policy. USA. 118 pages (746 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM035- Framework for Managing Programme Performance Information.
National Treasury, South Africa. 2007. 28 pages (1.9 MB).

CHRISTINA ALTMAYER. 2006. 7 pages (1.0 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM018- Learning from Evaluative Activity: Enhancing Performance through Outcome-focussed Management.
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. New-Zealand. 2003. 15 pages (433 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM046- Manager's Guide to Implementing Performance-based Management.
Environment Canada. 2000. 55 pages. (350 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM060- Standards-Based Management and Recognition: A Field Guide. A Practical Approach for Improving the Performance and Quality of Health Services.
Edgar Necochea, Débora Bossemeyer. JHPIEGO. 2006. 84 pages. (3.6 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM064- Organisational Performance Management in a Government Context: A Literature Review.
The Scottish Government. 2008. 42 pages. (506 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM081- How to Improve Government Performance (Challenges, Possible Solutions and Lessons of International Experience).
Dr. Prajapati Trivedi Secretary, Performance Management Cabinet Secretariat, India. 84 pages. 2009. (4.2 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM085- Counting what counts: performance and effectiveness in the humanitarian sector.
Ben Ramalingam and John Mitchell with John Borton and Kristin Smart. ALNAP Review of Humanitarian Action. 90 pages. 2013. (271 KB).

OFFICE OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT. State of Washington. 27 pages. 2009. (1.4 MB).

Public Sector/Service

[.pdf]   RBM045- Results Based Management: An Overview of its Applications in the Public Sector.
Cedric Saldanha. 16 pages. (112 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM022- Towards a Results-Based Management approach in the public sector: The example of Trinidad and Tobago.
UNDP, Knowledge Sharing Series. 2011. 40 pages. (1.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM029- Framework for Results-Based Public Sector and Country Cases.
Asia-Pacific Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results (CoP-MfDR).2011.48 pages (1.1 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM055- Targets and Results in Public Sector Management: Uganda Case Study.
Working Paper 205. Tim Williamson, Centre for Aid and Public Expenditure, ODI. 2003. 123 pages. (410 KB).

SANDRA VAN THIEL Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands FRANS L. LEEUW Dutch Educational Review Office. Productivity in Review. 15 pages. 2002. (83 KB).

 JACQUELINE M. OTWORI. 2013.43 pages (4.8 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM054- RAPID RESULTS APPROACH / INITIATIVE: Institutionalization of Results Based Management in Kenya Public Service.
Obong'o Sylvester. 2008. 6 pages. (47 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM058- Managing and Measuring Public Service in Commonwealth Africa: Report of the Sixth Commonwealth Forum of Heads of African Public Services.
Mahe, Seychelles. 13-15 July 2009.Improving african public services Series: NO.6. 130 pages. (573 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM059- EU Policy Coherence for Development: from moving the goalposts to result-based management?.
European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM). Discussion Paper no 101. 2010. 49 pages. (434 KB).

Blaine Liner, Harry P. Hatry, Elisa Vinson, Ryan Allen, Pat Dusenbury, Scott Bryant, Ron Snell, NCSL. The Urban Insitute. 2001. 158 pages. (2.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM076- From Research to Results: A Decade of Results-Based Service Improvement in Canada.
Brian Marson, Ralph Heintzman.IPAC. 46 pages. 2009. (1.8 MB)

[.pdf]   RBM079- Managing for Results in State Government: Evaluating a Decade of Reform.
Donald P . Moynihan University oUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison. 13 pages. 2008. (177 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM098- MANAGING FOR RESULTS:  Federal Managers' Views on Key Management Issues Vary Widely Across Agencies.
United States General Accounting Office (GAO). 203 pages. 2001. (1.2 MB).

Results-Based Management (General)

[.pdf]   RBM001- Results-Based Management (RBM), Guiding Principles,
UNESCO, 62 pages, (501 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM004- Results Based Management Concepts and Methodology.
2000, UNDP 19 pages, (256 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM013- Programme/project management:The results-based approach.
2008, ICRC. 89 pages (6.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM014- Results-Based Management 101.
Mark Schacter Murray Kronick, FCMC. Performance and Planning Exchange. 2010, 65 pages. (1.6 MB).


[.pdf]   RBM016- Sourcebook on results based management in the European Structural Funds.
Community of Practice on Results-Based Management. 240 pages (6.1 MB).

2007. Global Environment Facility. 31 pages (460 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM025- RBM Handbook on Developing Results Chains: The Basics of RBM as Applied to 100 Project Examples
2000. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 146 pages (1.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM026- Implementing Results-Based Management in Local Government.
James E. Swiss and Stephen K. Straus. 2005. 11 pages (394 KB)

[.pdf]   RBM031- Results-Based Management Capacity Assessment Toolkit.
Regional Aids Training Network (RATN), Kenya. 2011.37 pages (411 KB)

UNEP Brown Bag Lunch. Kabell Konsulting ApS2006. 29 pages (246 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM033b- A Reference Paper for CIDA Officers Engaged in Capacity Development and Program-Based Approaches Such as SWAps.
Réal Lavergne. CIDA. 2006. 45 pages (158 KB).


[.pdf]   RBM036- Results-Based Management Training for RCPAR Network members.
ITC/ILO Training Centre, Turin, Italy. UNDP. 2010. 73 pages (1.9 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM038- DFID's RESULTS FRAMEWORK: Managing and reporting DFID results.
11 pages (302 KB).

65 pages (672 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM043- Best Practices in Results-Based Management: A Review of Experience A Report for the United Nations Secretariat.
Volume 1: Main Report. John Mayne 2007. 21 pages. (1.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM048- Integrated Results-based Management and Accountability Framework and Risk-Based Audit Framework.
Canada Research Chairs. 2006. 41 pages. (228 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM052- Getting Better at Managing for Outcomes: A tool to help organisations consider their progress in results-based management and identify development objectives.
Thre Treasury of New Zealand. 2005. 13 pages. (186 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM053- Update on results-based management for the new business model.
Cities Alliance. 2010. 10 pages. (936 KB). 

[.pdf]   RBM056- Results-Based Management and Expenditure Management: Our Canadian Experience.
International Program for Development Evaluation Training. Presentation by Anne Routhier. Treasure Board of Canada Sexretariat. 2012. 26 pages. (1.3 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM057- Community of Practice on Results Based Management (RBM).
Benedict Wauters. Flemish ESF Agency. 2009. 17 pages. (360 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM061- The Making of the Millennium Development Goals: Human Development Meets Results-based Management In an Imperfect World.
David Hulme. Brooks World Poverty Institute. BWPI Working Paper 16. 2007. 28 pages. (125 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM065- Results and Impact Management System (RIMS). FIRST AND SECOND LEVEL RESULTS HANDBOOK
2011. 82 pages. (1.3 MB.

[.pdf]   RBM066- Species at Risk Program: Results-based Management and Accountability Framework and Risk-based Audit Framework.
2008. Government of Canada. 84 pages. (414 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM067- Guidance on Outcome Focused Management.Building Block 2 : Outcome Indicators.
Version 2.1, 2003. Pathfinder. 14 pages. (160 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM068- The Rapid Results Approach
Briefing Note Prepared by Nadim Matta, Zahra Hassanali, and Rashmir Balasubramaniam. 2005. 7 pages. (155 KB). 

[.pdf]   RBM080- The burden of proof in co-management and results-based management: the elephant on the deck!
Mike Fitzpatrick, Norman Graham, Dominic J. Rihan, and Dave G. Reid. 7 pages. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2011. (198 KB)

[.pdf]   RBM083- Logical Framework Approach and Outcome Mapping A constructive attempt of synthesis.
Daniel Roduner and Walter Schläppi, AGRIDEA and Walter Egli, NADEL (ETH Zurich). Rural Development News. 11 pages. 2008. (2.0 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM084- The Managing for Results Self-Assessment Tool.
Treasury Board of of Canada secretariat. 43 pages. 2003. (1.6 MB).


[.pdf]   RBM096- Designing for outcomes. A practical resource to support effective design, delivery and evaluation of work in health and social care.
Care Services Improvement Partnership (CSIP).18 pages. 2007. (2.4 MB).

[.pdf]   RBM100- Measure for measure: A field-based snapshot of the implementation of results based management in UNHCR.
37 pages. 2010. (176 KB). 

[.pdf]   RBM103- Results-Based Organization Design for Technology Entrepreneurs.
Chris McPhee. 8 pages. 2012. (502 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM003- Guide for the Development of Results-based Management and Accountability Frameworks.
Treasury Board Secretariat, Canada. 2001, 46 pages, (360 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM021- Balanced Scorecard and Results-Based Management Convergent Performance Management Systems.
Gavin Lawrie, Dirk Kalff and Henrik Andersen Presented at 3rd Annual Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control, The European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), Nice, France. 2005. 17 pages (349 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM104- Activity-based Costing (ABC) and Activitybased Management (ABM) Implementation – Is This the Solution for Organizations to Gain Profitability?.
Ildikó Réka CARDOŞ, Ştefan PETE 18 pages. 2011. (324 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM107- Building an Evaluative Culture for Effective Evaluation and Results Management.
John Mayne. Instititionam Learning and Change (ILAC). November 2008. 14 pages. 2009. (77 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM110- Managing a Sustainable Results Based Management (RBM) System.
Global Expert Team GET)-Public Sector Performance. GET Note: Results Based Management Systems “Recently Asked Questions” Series, 63747. 11 pages. 2011. (785 KB).

[.pdf]   RBM141- Framework for Results-Based Sector Management and Country Cases.
Asia-Pacific Community of Practice on Managing Development Results. 48 pages. 2011.(1.1 MB). 




[.pdf]    GD012-Sport and Gender - Right to Play


[.pdf]    GD066- Gender Equity, Sport and Development - SAD

What key factors are preventing women and girls from getting involved in sport activities in developing countries? How could those possible constraints be approached? Do specific types of sport really matter regarding social norms and cultural stereotypes? Are some types of sport more likely to clash with social norms? Could traditional games be a possible access for females in sports or are such patterns even counterproductive, because they consolidate existing patriarchal structures? This paper deals with such questions and provides an analytical framework as well as field experience and specific results from Iran, Zambia and Northern Caucasus which should encourage further debates and research in the field of sport, gender and development.


[.pdf]  GD231- Gender & Sport - Mainstreaming Gender in Sports Projects

SDC sees sport as a low-cost, high-impact  intervention. Until recently however, there was no coherent thinking on sport and development. Sports projects were supported by development agencies, including SDC, on a case-by-case basis. SDC supports projects and programmes, communication campaigns, conferences and festivals, and provides funds
for sports infrastructures and equipment. It focuses on targeting marginalised groups – ethnic minorities, women, disabled people, child soldiers – and gives support to NGOs, aid agencies and sports associations. SDC Sports Policy is implemented in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and operates within the framework of the Magglingen Declaration.


[.pdf]  GD232- Gender equality in sport and development cooperation

Sport can make a significant contribution to improving the position of women. By offering sports activities to girls and women, they get a chance to develop and increase their self-confidence. Girls and women who excel at sport can act as role models for other girls and women. Ultimately this can lead to a change in the self-image of women. By letting girls take part in sports together with boys – and by convincing parents and community leaders that sport is also positive for their daughters - the preconceptions boys and men have about girls can be eliminated. Greater independence in sport can lead to greater independence in other areas of life and can thus help strengthen the position and the rights of women. But how do you work effectively on gender equality in sport and development projects? This chapter will describe the concepts and offer some insight into obstacles to women’s participation in sport programmes. In addition, it will discuss the conditions for successful projects and give a summary of incentive measures. The chapter winds up with a conclusion and recommendation for effectively tackling the issue of gender equality in sport and development projects.


[.pdf]  GD233- The Contribution of Sports to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

In both subtle and explicit ways, women face many barriers to participating in sports, which prevent women and girls from reaping the many benefits that can be gained from playing sports and engaging in physical activity. Around the world, women encounter discrimination and stereotyping. Women athletes receive lower levels of media coverage, and are subjected to sexist and derogatory language in the media and from people in their communities. The sporting world epitomizes many of the gender stereotypes which persist around the world today, and has proved to be highly resistant to meaningful gender reform. By creating opportunities for women and girls to engage in sport, communities and societies empower women and girls on an individual level, by promoting self-confidence, leadership, teamwork skills and a sense of achievement. They also challenge existing gender norms and roles within society. Sport provides a space in which women can renegotiate concepts of femininity and masculinity, challenge stereotypes which label women as weak and inferior, and demonstrate to their communities what they are capable of achieving. As such, promoting girls’ and women’s involvement in sports is an important tool in gender equality and women’s empowerment and, more broadly, in development and social change.


[.pdf]  GD234- Women, gender equality and sport

This publication explores the power of sport and physical education to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. It examines persistent inequalities and challenges to equal participation and benefits for women and girls, as well as ways to address them. Examples of good practices are provided in all areas. The report outlines recommendations for action in the areas of research, policy and operational activities.





[.pdf]    GD030-Developing Gender Statistics - UNECE

The manual Developing Gender Statistics: A Practical Tool aims to guide statistical organizations in the production and use of gender statistics, building upon the seminal work Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change by  Statistics Sweden (Hedman et al., 1996).


[.pdf]    GD034- Gender and Development - Facts and Figures - BRIDGE

The following ‘facts and figures’ expose gender inequalities and provide evidence of the need to engender development. This collection does not claim to be comprehensive but offers an insight into the available gender  statistics in the following areas: measures of inequality, poverty, health, access to resources, education, globalisation, governance, conflict and emergencies, human rights, references.


[.pdf]    GD035- The Gender Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index

Produced by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI), the Gender-GEDI is the world's first diagnostic tool that comprehensively identifies and analyzes the conditions that foster high potential female  entrepreneurship development. This initial 17-country pilot study provides key insights across several regions and levels of national economic development. Female entrepreneurship at large includes a vast array of activities  – ranging from petty market traders and shopkeepers to biochemical company start-ups.


[.pdf]    GD074- The African Gender and Development Index (AGDI) - UNECA

The African Gender and Development Index (AGDI) is a tool that maps the extent of gender inequality in Africa and assesses government performance. It consists of two parts, the quantitative Gender Status Index (GSI)  and the qualitative African Women’s Progress Scoreboard (AWPS). The AGDI is a contribution to the Beijing Plus Ten review process. It is a complete and comprehensive tool that will guide policy makers, civil society  and the donor community to intervene strategically in areas in which either the GSI or the AWPS have a low score. The AGDI will be an important instrument in development planning on the African continent.


...Sustainable Development



[.pdf]    GD061- Gender Equality in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The Rio + 20 Conference ‘The Future We Want’ took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012. It was organized to take stock of what results have been achieved since the original United National Conference on  Environment and Development (UNCED), otherwise referred to as the Earth Summit, in 1992, and to address present and future challenges that are undermining sustainable development. Twenty years ago, the Earth  Summit and its outcome document, Agenda 21, fueled an optimism that led to a decade of UN conferences, including the UN Beijing Conference on Women in 1995, and world summits of the 1990’s. In 2000, governments reaffirmed their commitment to sustainable development by adopting the Millennium Declaration in 2000 and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were important indicators and benchmarks to  achieve sustainable development goals. It would be fantastic to state collectively that as a result of these efforts and others at the national and regional levels, sustainable development has moved in a positive direction. Instead, it is widely recognized that we are very far away from where we need to be.


[.pdf]    GD046-Gender, the environment and the sustainability of development - ECLAC

The first part of this document describes how the definition of sustainability has come to be expanded, the main issues raised in the debates which have shaped this idea, the types of consensus reached and the contradictions affecting its implementation. The document then deals with the changing attitudes taken in international meetings towards the link between women and the environment in the context of proposals to bring  about sustainable development, and ends with a review of the propositions contained in the main theoretical approaches to this relationship. The second part of the work sets out a conceptual and methodological proposal  of a systemic nature for improving diagnoses and studies in general on the interconnection between the gender system, the way environmental changes come about and the impact of these, in the context of the development  policies being implemented by these countries.


[.pdf]    GD079- Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development_A Toolkit and Resource Guide - UNDP

This toolkit and resource guide has been produced jointly by the Sustainable Energy Programme of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and ENERGIA, the International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy. It is designed to help planners and practitioners integrate gender and energy considerations into development programmes, including those focusing on energy improvements as well as other types of development programmes.The toolkit and resource guide outlines the linkages between gender and energy in the context of sustainable development and provides suggestions and materials on how to address energy  poverty by integrating gender and energy sensitivity into development programmes, projects, and policies.


[.pdf]    GD081- Gender and Climate Change

The Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) is pleased to present the first edition of its Discussion Paper Series. Each paper in this series will focus on one issue related to climate change adaptation and sustainable  development. These papers are intended to stimulate intellectual discussions as well as share early lessons learned from the design and initial implementation stages of the AAP with adaptation and development practitioners.This discussion paper consists of three sections. The first section, ‘Key Challenges for Reducing Gender-Based Vulnerability’, provides a background on the relationship between climate change and gender,  and presents three key factors contributing to the disproportionate e ects of climate change upon women. The second section on ‘Gender-Sensitive Approaches in the AAP’ outlines some of the methods the AAP is using  to mainstream gender into climate change adaptation planning and decision-making to ensure equal participation and bene ts. The final section, ‘Continuing E orts’ reiterates the importance of incorporating gender into climate change planning and decision-making and the necessity of mainstreaming this issue into the AAP in order to reach its objectives.


[.pdf]    GD087- Food and Nutrition Security, Health and Gender Equality: Partnerships for climate-resilient sustainable development

Food and nutrition security, health, gender equality, climate change and environmental degradation, including loss of biodiversity are closely interlinked. Climate change and environmental degradation undermine the ability  of people to move out of poverty and compromise their full enjoyment of human rights. This has a direct impact on the health and food and nutrition security of millions of people - particularly women and their children.


[.pdf]    GD091- Gender perspectives in mountain development. New challenges and innovative approaches in Sustainable Mountain Development - ICIMOD

This ICIMOD current issue of our periodical Sustainable Mountain Development is dedicated to celebrating women’s contribution to mountain livelihoods and wellbeing. It examines the gender  perspective in mountain  development, reflecting on emerging gender issues in the Himalayas and presenting innovative approaches for empowering mountain women. These short articles explore a range of complex issues from the feminisation of  agriculture to the impact of climate change on women, and present innovation approaches ranging from REDD to drudgery reduction.


[.pdf]    GD092- Ensuring gender equality in capacity development - Rural employment and sustainable Development

Capacity development has emerged as a viable approach to getting at the crux of the need for systemic change in development processes whereby no institutional, organizational or individual responsibility for transformation  is neglected. Yet, feminist researchers are concerned that gender equality is not explicitly addressed in the literature on capacity development. This paper presents areas where understanding of gender issues in sustainable development and specifically, rural employment can converge with capacity development. Relevant examples from Peru, Kenya and Ghana are highlighted. Opening capacity development up to gender equality ensures that interlocking individual, organizational and system level capacities underpin good policy and strategies for sustainable development and rural employment


[.pdf]    GD029-Gender and water - IFAD

This review examines the impact of water-related projects on women, women’s role in managing water resources and the constraints women face in gaining access to water. It presents lessons learned in promoting  women’s participation in decision-making for water management using experiences from several IFAD-supported water programmes and projects. It highlights the innovative activities and catalysts that have helped to  address gender issues in water programmes and projects. And it offers recommendations on how to improve women’s access to water resources through equitable development and gender mainstreaming.


[.pdf]    GD071- Gender, Water and Sanitation - A Policy Brief - UN-Water In most societies, women have primary responsibility for management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Water is necessary not only for  drinking, but also for food production and preparation, care of domestic animals, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. Because of their dependence on water resources, women have  accumulated considerable knowledge about water resources, including location, quality and storage methods. However, efforts geared towards improving the management of the world’s finite water resources and  extending access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, often overlook the central role of women in water management.


...Urban Development


[.pdf]    GD076- Gender Mainstreaming in Urban Development - Berlin Handbook

This handbook contains a range of criteria and guidelines for decision-making in gender-sensitive planning at various levels. The first part addresses the  similarities and differences between gender mainstreaming and gender  planning as employed in the Berlin context. Suggestions regarding the design of  planning processes are next, supplemented by criteria for the evaluation of the different levels of planning in the urban context. These criteria should be  considered “food for thought” and must be adapted to the respective planning contexts. They are intended to stimulate and encourage those involved in the  planning process to approach each new project with an eye towards a creative examination of the advantages that gender mainstreaming can provide.


[.pdf]    GD047- Gender and Property Rights - A Critical Issue in Urban Economic Development - IHC

The paper explores the nexus of three issues that individually are touchstones of international donor efforts to reduce poverty in developing countries, but are not  usually considered together or in terms of how they relate to  each other. These issues are: (1) gender equality in property rights, i.e., the rights of women  to participate in property use and ownership with full legal and societal protection; (2) the importance to economic development of residential and commercial property rights in urban areas; and (3) the role of women in economic development.


[.pdf]    GD080- Gender Equality:  - An overview of UN-HABITAT’S Gender Equality Action Plan (2008-2013)

UN-HABITAT’s Gender Equality Action Plan unites all UN-HABITAT programmes and partners to improve gender equality in working towards sustainable urbanisation and adequate shelter for all. The plan contributes to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, especially around water and sanitation, environmental sustainability, and improving living conditions in slums. At the same time, the plan explicitly addresses the third Goal, to “promote gender equality and empower women.” With more than half of humanity now living in cities and 1 billion in slums, improving gender equality is a top development priority that needs to be supported within  institutions by good coordination, technical assistance, effective advocacy, training and capacity building, and monitoring and evaluation. The Gender Equality Action Plan provides the strategic framework to bring  about clear and measurable results.


...Value Chains




[.pdf]    GD067- Gender in Value Chains - Agri-ProFocus

This toolkit intends to motivate and help practioners in integrating a gender perspective in agricultural value chain development, by providing practical tools for all stages of the value chain intervention. The toolkit provides an overview of material available on gender and value chains. The tools are selected from manuals  produced by USAID, SNV, GIZ, ILO and other organizations in the Agri-ProFocus "Gender in Value Chains Network".


[.pdf]    GD059- Gender Mainstreaming in Value Chain Development - SNV

This manual is aimed at SNV advisors and Local Capacity Builders (LCBs) who work on economic development and VCD issues. It should be considered as a working, practical guide. In the end, this manual should help  you to make your facilitation in VCD more gender sensitive and achieve greater results on gender equality objectives in agricultural and economic development.Volume 1: Basic Concepts; Volume 2: Gender Sensitive  Mapping and Value Chain Analysis; Volume 3: Strategic Planning: Gender Sensitive Objectives in Value Chain Development.


[.pdf]  GD235- Gender and Value Chain Development

Knowledge among practitioners and policy makers on the gender aspects of value chain interventions is still limited. To start filling this void, the Evaluation Department of DANIDA has commissioned this report. The overall purpose of this study is to examine which gender issues are important when and where in value chains – based on findings of existing evaluations complemented by other relevant studies. The focus in this report is on development interventions that explicitly or implicitly employ a value chain approach. Coverage will not be limited to interventions targeting only women, but will also include evaluations and lessons learned from more generic value chain interventions insofar as they address (or reflect upon) gender issues. While acknowledging that men are sometimes disadvantaged in, or excluded from value chains, this study focuses on issues related to the impact of value chain interventions on women. This is because women are more disadvantaged than men in the context of value chain operations. Section 2 of the study discusses and defines the concepts of ‘value chain intervention’ and ‘gender’. Section 3 outlines the methodology employed in identifying relevant literature as well as the analytical strategy used for examining the selected material. Section 4 presents a synthesis of experiences gathered in relation to gender outcomes of value chain interventions – based on findings of evaluations complemented by other relevant studies. Section 5 provides lessons learned and final conclusions.


[.pdf]  GD236- Making the Strongest Links - A practical guide to mainstreaming gender analysis in value chain development

This Guide has been developed as a means to increase women entrepreneurs' capacity to access markets and build sustainable enterprises that create decent work. It has been informed by years of expertise in the ILO's work in Women's Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality (WEDGE).This Guide originated in an ILO project 'Improving Market Access for Women in the Informal Economy'4 which led to an analysis of the Ethiopian weaving industry to identify ways in which women involved in weaving could increase their market access, and hence also control over their production process and improve their position in the household and community. During the project, it became clear that there was a need to
improve the gender understanding, and ultimately the capacity of, local organizations and individuals who carry out value chain analysis to be able to take into account the
gender based differences within an analysis. The Guide is partly based on the experience of that process. It is also informed by experience of short gender trainings for donor agencies in Ethiopia that focused on gender issues in leather and shoe sector, pharmaceuticals and trainings in Kenya with growth-oriented women entrepreneurs involved in a AfDB-IFC-ILO Program which focused on home textiles, flower production and other export businesses.


[.pdf]  GD238- Integrating Poverty, Gender and Environmental Concers into Value Chain Analysis

The first objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that can help overcoming the shortcomings highlighted so far in ‘stand-alone’ value chain, poverty, gender and environmental analyses. In other words, it aims at integrating the ‘vertical’ and zontal’ aspects of value chains that affect poverty and sustainability. the second objective of the paper is to draw lessons from the conceptual frame-work (see above) for interventions targeted at improving value chain participation for weak chain actors in developing countries, particularly small producers and agro-businesses. Emphasis is on the kinds of interventions known as ‘action research’ which put emphasis on strategic and ‘poli-tical’ approaches to achieving sustained improvements for disadvantaged groups. The resulting approach forms the basis of a strategic framework and a set of practical tools for action research in value chains developed in a companion paper (Riisgaard et al. 2008).


[.pdf]  GD239- Challenging Chains to Change - Gender equity in agricultural value chain development

This book enthusiastically takes up the challenge of addressing gender in value chain work. It addresses gender at two intersecting levels: as a justice issue, in which both men and women should benefit from value chain gains, and as a means of building more robust and efficient chains. The book is the culmination of a series of learning activities and events motivated through the Agri-ProFocus network1 and starting in 2008. This book is the result of exchange by practitioners and academics using a “writeshop” (jointly writing a book in a workshop). It contains an easy-to-read analysis of many excellent examples from practice that convince us that there are many entry points and opportunities for addressing gender in value chain development: ways that benefit both the men and women involved and the success and profitability of the chain itself. This book is the fourth in a series on value chain development by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) and is the logical follow up to the three other books. One is called Chain empowerment: Supporting African farmers to develop markets (2006). The second is titled Trading up: Building cooperation between farmers and traders in Africa (2007). The third, on Value chain finance, was published in 2010.





Sexual Violence Extends Beyond Conflict

Journal title: Development Outreach, volume 11, issue 2

Author: Karin Wachter

Pages: 3


Caste And Punishment

Authors: Hoff, Karla; Kshetramade, Mayuresh; Fehr, Ernst

Published: September 2009

Pages: 42


Aid And Trust In Country Systems

Authors: Knack, Stephen; Eubank, Nicholas

Published: July 2009

Pages: 58


Addressing Gender-Based Violence : A Critical Review of Interventions

Journal title: World Bank Research Observer, volume 22, issue 1

Authors: Morrison, Andrew; Ellsberg, Mary; Bott, Sarah

Pages: 28






The Labor Market, Education and Armed Conflict in Tajikistan

Author: Olga N. Shemyakina

Published: July 2011

Pages: 56


Ex-Ante Methods To Assess The Impact Of Social Insurance Policies On Labor Supply With An Application To Brazil

Authors: Robalino, David A.; Zylberstajn, Helio

Published: August 2009

Pages: 49


Adequacy of Retirement Income after Pension Reforms in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe

Type: Working paper

Number: 4857


Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

Journal title: World Bank Economic Review, volume 23, issue 1

Author: H. Oostendorp, Remco

Pages: 21


Can The Introduction Of A Minimum Wage In FYR Macedonia Decrease The Gender Wage Gap?

Author: Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.

Published: December 2008

Pages: 16


The Effect Of Male Migration For Work On Employment Patterns Of Females In Nepal

Authors: Lokshin, Michael; Glinskaya, Elena

Published: November 2008

Pages: 34


The Place Premium: Wage Differences For Identical Workers Across The US Border

Authors: Clemens, Michael A.; Montenegro, Claudio E.; Pritchett, Lant

Published: July 2008

Pages: 58


What Can Countries in Other Regions Learn from Social Security Reform in Latin America?

Journal title: World Bank Research Observer, volume 23, issue 1

Authors: Gill, Indermit S.; Ozer, Ceren; Tatucu, Radu

Pages: 20


Annuities in Switzerland

Authors: Butler, Monika; Ruesch, Martin

Published: January 2008

Pages: 110